THE FIRST BOOK OF CHRONICLES

The Greek title, paraleipomena, means “things omitted,” or “passed over” (i.e., in the accounts found in Samuel and Kings). The Books of Chronicles, however, are much more than a supplement to Samuel and Kings; a comparison of the two histories discloses striking differences of scope and purpose. The Books of Chronicles record in some detail the lengthy span (some five hundred fifty years) from the death of King Saul to the return from the exile. Unlike today’s history writing, wherein factual accuracy and impartiality of judgment are the norm, biblical history, with rare exceptions, was less concerned with reporting in precise detail all the facts of a situation than with drawing out the meaning of those facts. Biblical history was thus primarily interpretative, and its purpose was to disclose the action of the living God in human affairs. For this reason we speak of it as “sacred history.”

These characteristics are apparent when we examine the primary objective of the Chronicler (the conventional designation for the anonymous author) in compiling his work. Given the situation which confronted the Jewish people at this time (the end of the fifth century B.C.), the Chronicler realized that Israel’s political greatness was a thing of the past. Yet, for the Chronicler, Israel’s past held the key to the people’s future. In particular, the Chronicler aimed to establish and defend the legitimate claims of the Davidic monarchy in Israel’s history, and to underscore the status of Jerusalem and its divinely established Temple worship as the center of religious life for the Jewish people. If Judaism was to survive and prosper, it would have to heed the lessons of the past and devoutly serve its God in the place where he had chosen to dwell, the Temple in Jerusalem. From the Chronicler’s point of view, the reigns of David and Solomon were the ideal to which all subsequent rule in Judah must aspire. The Chronicler was much more interested in David’s religious and cultic influence than in his political power, however. He saw David’s (and Solomon’s) primary importance as deriving rather from their roles in the establishment of Jerusalem and its Temple as the center of the true worship of the Lord. Furthermore, he presents David as the one who prescribed the Temple’s elaborate ritual (which, in point of fact, only gradually evolved in the Second Temple period) and who appointed the Levites to supervise the liturgical services there.

The Chronicler used a variety of sources in writing his history. Besides the canonical Books of Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Joshua, and Ruth, and especially the Books of Samuel and Kings (specifically 1 Sm 312 Kings 25), he cites the titles of many other works which have not come down to us, e.g., “The Books of the Kings of Israel,” or “The Books of the Kings of Israel and Judah,” and “The History of Gad the Seer.” In addition, the Chronicler’s work contains early preexilic material not found in the Books of Kings.

The principal divisions of 1 Chronicles are as follows:

  1. Genealogical Tables (1:19:34)
  2. The History of David (9:3529:30)

I. GENEALOGICAL TABLES*

CHAPTER 1

From Adam to Abraham. 1Adam, Seth, Enosh,a 2Kenan, Mahalalel, Jared,b 3Enoch, Methuselah, Lamech,c 4Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth.d 5The sons of Japheth were Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras.e 6The sons of Gomer were Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah. 7The sons of Javan were Elishah, Tarshish, the Kittim, and the Rodanim.

8The sons of Ham were Cush, Mizraim, Put, and Canaan. 9The sons of Cush were Seba, Havilah, Sabta, Raama, and Sabteca. The sons of Raama were Sheba and Dedan. 10Cush became the father of Nimrod, who was the first to be a warrior on the earth.f 11g Mizraim became the father of the Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, 12Pathrusim, Casluhim, and Caphtorim, from whom the Philistines sprang. 13Canaan became the father of Sidon, his firstborn, and Heth, 14and the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites, 15the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, 16the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites.

17h The sons of Shem were Elam, Asshur, Arpachshad, Lud, and Aram. The sons of Aram were Uz, Hul, Gether, and Mash. 18Arpachshad became the father of Shelah, and Shelah became the father of Eber. 19Two sons were born to Eber; the first was named Peleg (for in his time the world was divided),* and his brother was named Joktan. 20Joktan became the father of Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, 21Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, 22Ebal, Abimael, Sheba, 23Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab; all these were the sons of Joktan.

24i Shem, Arpachshad, Shelah, 25Eber, Peleg, Reu, 26Serug, Nahor, Terah, 27Abram, that is, Abraham.j

From Abraham to Jacob. 28The sons of Abraham were Isaac and Ishmael.k 29These were their generations:

Nebaioth, the firstborn of Ishmael, then Kedar, Adbeel, Mibsam, 30Mishma, Dumah, Massa, Hadad, Tema, 31Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah. These were the sons of Ishmael.l

32The sons of Keturah, Abraham’s concubine: she bore Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak, and Shuah. The sons of Jokshan were Sheba and Dedan. 33The sons of Midian were Ephah, Epher, Hanoch, Abida, and Eldaah. All these were the sons of Keturah.m

34Abraham begot Isaac. The sons of Isaac were Esau and Israel.n

35The descendants of Esau were Eliphaz, Reuel, Jeush, Jalam, and Korah. 36The descendants of Eliphaz were Teman, Omar, Zephi, Gatam, Kenaz, Timna, and Amalek. 37The descendants of Reuel were Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah.o

38The sons of Seir* were Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan. 39The sons of Lotan were Hori and Homam; Timna was the sister of Lotan. 40The sons of Shobal were Alian, Manahath, Ebal, Shephi, and Onam. The sons of Zibeon were Aiah and Anah. 41The sons of Anah: Dishon. The sons of Dishon were Hemdan, Eshban, Ithran, and Cheran. 42The sons of Ezer were Bilhan, Zaavan, and Jaakan. The sons of Dishan were Uz and Aran.p

43q The kings who reigned in the land of Edom before the Israelites had kings were the following: Bela, son of Beor, the name of whose city was Dinhabah. 44When Bela died, Jobab, son of Zerah, from Bozrah, succeeded him as king.r 45When Jobab died, Husham, from the land of the Temanites, succeeded him as king.s 46Husham died and Hadad, son of Bedad, succeeded him as king. He overthrew the Midianites on the Moabite plateau, and the name of his city was Avith. 47Hadad died and Samlah of Masrekah succeeded him as king. 48Samlah died and Shaul from Rehoboth on the Euphrates succeeded him as king. 49When Shaul died, Baalhanan, son of Achbor, succeeded him as king. 50Baalhanan died and Hadad succeeded him as king. The name of his city was Pai, and his wife’s name was Mehetabel. She was the daughter of Matred, who was the daughter of Mezahab. 51t After Hadad died, there were chiefs in Edom: the chiefs of Timna, Aliah, Jetheth, 52Oholibamah, Elah, Pinon, 53Kenaz, Teman, Mibzar, 54Magdiel, and Iram were the chiefs of Edom.

* [1:19:34] The Chronicler’s intention seems to have been to retell, from his particular viewpoint, the story of God’s people from creation down to his own day. Since his primary interest was the history of David and the Davidic dynasty of Judah, he hurries through everything that preceded the death of Saul, David’s predecessor as king, by the use of genealogical lists. The sources for these genealogies are mostly the books, already largely in their present form in the Chronicler’s time, that eventually formed the Hebrew canon. For any given portion of these chapters, see the cross-references to their scriptural sources.

* [1:19] Divided: see note on Gn 10:25.

* [1:38] Seir: another name for Esau (v. 35) or Edom (v. 43).

a. [1:1] Gn 5:3, 6, 9.

b. [1:24] Gn 5:932; 10:232.

c. [1:3] Gn 4:24.

d. [1:4] Gn 5:32; 6:10; 9:18.

e. [1:57] Gn 10:24.

f. [1:10] Gn 10:8.

g. [1:1116] Gn 10:1318.

h. [1:1723] Gn 10:2229; 11:1018.

i. [1:2427] Gn 11:1026; Lk 3:3436.

j. [1:27] Gn 17:5; Neh 9:7.

k. [1:28] Gn 16:11, 15; 21:23; Gal 4:2223; Heb 11:11.

l. [1:2931] Gn 25:1316.

m. [1:3233] Gn 25:14.

n. [1:34] Gn 21:23; 25:19, 2526; 32:2829; Mt 1:2; Lk 3:34.

o. [1:3537] Gn 36:45, 1013, 1519.

p. [1:3842] Gn 36:2028.

q. [1:4354] Gn 36:3143.

r. [1:44] Is 34:6; 63:1; Jer 49:13, 22.

s. [1:45] Gn 36:11; Jb 2:11; Jer 49:7, 20.

t. [1:5154] Gn 36:4043.

CHAPTER 2

1These were the sons of Israel: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun,a 2Dan, Joseph, Benjamin, Naphtali, Gad, and Asher.b

Judah. 3The sons of Judah* were: Er, Onan, and Shelah; these three Bathshua, a Canaanite woman, bore to him. But Judah’s firstborn, Er, was wicked in the sight of the LORD, so he took his life.c 4Judah’s daughter-in-law Tamar bore him Perez and Zerah, so that he had five sons in all.d

5The sons of Perez were Hezron and Hamul.e 6The sons of Zerah were Zimri, Ethan, Heman, Calcol, and Darda—five in all.f 7The sons of Zimri: Carmi. The sons of Carmi: Achar, who brought trouble upon Israel by violating the ban.g 8The sons of Ethan: Azariah. 9The sons born to Hezron were Jerahmeel, Ram, and Chelubai.* h

10* Ram became the father of Amminadab, and Amminadab became the father of Nahshon, a prince of the Judahites.i 11j Nahshon became the father of Salmah. Salmah became the father of Boaz. 12Boaz became the father of Obed. Obed became the father of Jesse. 13k Jesse became the father of Eliab, his firstborn, of Abinadab, the second son, Shimea, the third,l 14Nethanel, the fourth, Raddai, the fifth, 15Ozem, the sixth, and David, the seventh. 16Their sisters were Zeruiah and Abigail. Zeruiah had three sons: Abishai, Joab, and Asahel.m 17Abigail bore Amasa, whose father was Jether the Ishmaelite.n

18* By his wife Azubah, Caleb, son of Hezron, became the father of a daughter, Jerioth. Her sons were Jesher, Shobab, and Ardon.o 19When Azubah died, Caleb married Ephrath, who bore him Hur.p 20Hur became the father of Uri, and Uri became the father of Bezalel.q 21Then Hezron had relations with the daughter of Machir, the father of Gilead, whom he married when he was sixty years old. She bore him Segub.r 22Segub became the father of Jair, who possessed twenty-three cities in the land of Gilead.s 23Geshur and Aram took from them the villages of Jair, that is, Kenath and its towns, sixty cities in all, which had belonged to the sons of Machir, the father of Gilead.t 24After the death of Hezron, Caleb had relations with Ephrathah, the widow of his father Hezron, and she bore him Ashhur, the father of Tekoa.u

25The sons of Jerahmeel,* the firstborn of Hezron, were Ram, the firstborn, then Bunah, Oren, and Ozem, his brothers.v 26Jerahmeel also had another wife, named Atarah, who was the mother of Onam. 27The sons of Ram, the firstborn of Jerahmeel, were Maaz, Jamin, and Eker. 28The sons of Onam were Shammai and Jada. The sons of Shammai were Nadab and Abishur. 29Abishur’s wife, who was named Abihail, bore him Ahban and Molid. 30The sons of Nadab were Seled and Appaim. Seled died childless. 31The sons of Appaim: Ishi. The sons of Ishi: Sheshan. The sons of Sheshan: Ahlai.w 32The sons of Jada, the brother of Shammai, were Jether and Jonathan. Jether died childless. 33The sons of Jonathan were Peleth and Zaza. These were the sons of Jerahmeel. 34Sheshan had no sons, only daughters; he had an Egyptian slave named Jarha. 35Sheshan gave his daughter in marriage to his slave Jarha, and she bore him Attai. 36Attai became the father of Nathan. Nathan became the father of Zabad. 37Zabad became the father of Ephlal. Ephlal became the father of Obed. 38Obed became the father of Jehu. Jehu became the father of Azariah. 39Azariah became the father of Helez. Helez became the father of Eleasah. 40Eleasah became the father of Sismai. Sismai became the father of Shallum. 41Shallum became the father of Jekamiah. Jekamiah became the father of Elishama.

42The sons of Caleb,* the brother of Jerahmeel: Mesha his firstborn, who was the father of Ziph. Then the sons of Mareshah, who was the father of Hebron. 43The sons of Hebron were Korah, Tappuah, Rekem, and Shema. 44Shema became the father of Raham, who was the father of Jorkeam. Rekem became the father of Shammai. 45The son of Shammai: Maon, who was the father of Beth-zur. 46Ephah, Caleb’s concubine, bore Haran, Moza, and Gazez. Haran became the father of Gazez. 47The sons of Jahdai were Regem, Jotham, Geshan, Pelet, Ephah, and Shaaph. 48Maacah, Caleb’s concubine, bore Sheber and Tirhanah. 49She also bore Shaaph, the father of Madmannah, Sheva, the father of Machbenah, and the father of Gibea. Achsah was Caleb’s daughter.x

50These were sons of Caleb, sons of Hur,* the firstborn of Ephrathah: Shobal, the father of Kiriath-jearim, 51Salma, the father of Bethlehem, and Hareph, the father of Bethgader. 52The sons of Shobal, the father of Kiriath-jearim, were Reaiah, half of the Manahathites, 53and the clans of Kiriath-jearim: the Ithrites, the Puthites, the Shumathites, and the Mishraites. From these the Zorahites and the Eshtaolites derived.y 54The sons of Salma were Bethlehem, the Netophathites, Atroth-beth-Joab, half of the Manahathites, and the Zorites. 55The clans of the Sopherim dwelling in Jabez were the Tirathites, the Shimeathites, and the Sucathites. They were the Kenites, who descended from Hammath, the ancestor of the Rechabites.z

* [2:34:23] The Chronicler had two reasons for placing his genealogy of the tribe of Judah before those of the other tribes, and for making it longer than all the others: his interest in David, who was of the tribe of Judah; and the prominence of descendants of that tribe among the Jews of the Chronicler’s time.

* [2:9] Chelubai: a variant form of the name Caleb (vv. 18, 42), a different person from the Chelub mentioned in 4:11.

* [2:1017] These verses list the immediate ancestors of David. A similar list appears in Ru 4:1822.

* [2:1824] These verses record the descendants of Caleb. In 4:15 as well as frequently in the Pentateuch (see Nm 13:6; 14:6, 30; 26:65; etc.), Caleb is called the son of Jephunneh. Here his father is called Hezron, perhaps because the Calebites were reckoned as part of the clan of the Hezronites.

* [2:2541] The Jerahmeelites were a clan living in the Negeb of Judah.

* [2:4249] Another list (see vv. 1824) of the Calebites, a clan inhabiting the south of Judah.

* [2:5055] The Hurites were a clan dwelling to the south and west of Jerusalem and related to the Calebites.

a. [2:1] Gn 29:3235; 30:18, 20; 35:23.

b. [2:2] Gn 30:6, 8, 11, 13, 24; 35:18, 2426.

c. [2:3] 1 Chr 4:21; Gn 38:15; 46:12.

d. [2:4] Gn 38:7, 1330; 46:12; Mt 1:3.

e. [2:5] Gn 46:12.

f. [2:6] 1 Kgs 5:11.

g. [2:7] Jos 7:1, 1821, 2425; 22:20.

h. [2:9] Mt 1:3.

i. [2:10] Mt 1:4.

j. [2:1112] Nm 1:7; Mt 1:45.

k. [2:1315] 1 Sm 16:613; 17:1314.

l. [2:13] 2 Chr 11:18.

m. [2:16] 2 Sm 2:18.

n. [2:17] 2 Sm 17:25; 19:14; 20:413.

o. [2:18] 1 Chr 2:24.

p. [2:19] 1 Chr 2:24.

q. [2:20] Ex 24:14; 31:2; 35:30; 2 Chr 1:5.

r. [2:21] Nm 26:29; 27:1; 32:39; Jos 13:31; Jgs 5:14.

s. [2:22] Nm 32:41; 1 Kgs 4:13.

t. [2:23] Dt 3:14; Jos 13:30.

u. [2:24] 1 Chr 2:19; 2 Sm 14:2; 2 Chr 11:6.

v. [2:25] 1 Sm 27:10; 30:29; Jb 32:2.

w. [2:31] 1 Chr 4:20.

x. [2:49] Jos 15:16; Jgs 1:12.

y. [2:53] Jgs 18:2.

z. [2:55] Nm 24:21; Jgs 1:16; 4:11; 1 Sm 15:6; Jer 35.

CHAPTER 3

1* a These were the sons of David born to him in Hebron: the firstborn, Amnon, by Ahinoam of Jezreel; the second, Daniel,* by Abigail of Carmel; 2the third, Absalom, son of Maacah, who was the daughter of Talmai, king of Geshur; the fourth, Adonijah, son of Haggith; 3the fifth, Shephatiah, by Abital; the sixth, Ithream, by his wife Eglah. 4Six in all were born to him in Hebron, where he reigned seven years and six months. Then he reigned thirty-three years in Jerusalem.b 5c In Jerusalem the following were born to him: Shimea,* Shobab, Nathan, Solomon—four by Bathsheba, the daughter of Ammiel;d 6Ibhar, Elishua, Eliphelet, 7Nogah, Nepheg, Japhia, 8Elishama, Eliada, and Eliphelet—nine. 9All these were sons of David, in addition to other sons by concubines; and Tamar was their sister.e

10* f The son of Solomon was Rehoboam, whose son was Abijah, whose son was Asa, whose son was Jehoshaphat,g 11whose son was Joram, whose son was Ahaziah, whose son was Joash,h 12whose son was Amaziah, whose son was Azariah, whose son was Jotham,i 13whose son was Ahaz, whose son was Hezekiah, whose son was Manasseh,j 14whose son was Amon, whose son was Josiah.k 15The sons of Josiah were: the firstborn Johanan; the second, Jehoiakim; the third, Zedekiah; the fourth, Shallum.* l 16The sons of Jehoiakim were: Jeconiah, his son; Zedekiah, his son.m

17The sons of Jeconiah* the captive were: Shealtiel,n 18Malchiram, Pedaiah, Shenazzar,* Jekamiah, Hoshama, and Nedabiah. 19The sons of Pedaiah were Zerubbabel* and Shimei. The sons of Zerubbabel were Meshullam and Hananiah; Shelomith was their sister. 20The sons of Meshullam were Hashubah, Ohel, Berechiah, Hasadiah, Jushabhesed—five. 21The sons of Hananiah were Pelatiah, Jeshaiah, Rephaiah, Arnan, Obadiah, and Shecaniah. 22The sons of Shecaniah were Shemaiah, Hattush, Igal, Bariah, Neariah, Shaphat—six.o 23The sons of Neariah were Elioenai, Hizkiah, and Azrikam—three. 24The sons of Elioenai were Hodaviah, Eliashib, Pelaiah, Akkub, Johanan, Delaiah, and Anani—seven.

* [3:19] A list of David’s sons.

* [3:1] Daniel: he is called Chileab in 2 Sm 3:3.

* [3:5] Shimea: he bears the name Shammua in 2 Sm 5:14. Ammiel: Bathsheba’s father is called Eliam in 2 Sm 11:3.

* [3:1016] The kings of Judah from Solomon down to the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians.

* [3:15] Shallum: another name for Jehoahaz, Josiah’s immediate successor; cf. Jer 22:11.

* [3:1724] The descendants of King Jeconiah down to the time of the Chronicler. If twenty-five years are allowed for each generation, the ten generations between Jeconiah and Anani (the last name on the list) would put the birth of the latter at about 405 B.C.—an important item in establishing the approximate date of the Chronicler’s work in its final form.

* [3:18] Shenazzar: presumably he is the same as Sheshbazzar (Ezr 1:8, 11; 5:1416), the prince of Judah who was the first Jewish governor of Judah after the exile. Both forms of the name probably go back to the Babylonian name Sin-ab-ussar, meaning “O [god] Sin, protect [our] father!”

* [3:19] Zerubbabel: here called the son of Pedaiah, though elsewhere (Hg 1:12, 14; 2:2, 23; Ezr 3:2, 8; 5:2; Neh 12:1) his father’s name is given as Shealtiel. The latter indication may merely point to the fact that Zerubbabel succeeded Shealtiel as head of the house of David.

a. [3:14] 2 Sm 3:25.

b. [3:4] 2 Sm 2:11; 5:5.

c. [3:58] 2 Sm 5:1416.

d. [3:5] 2 Sm 11:3.

e. [3:9] 2 Sm 13:12.

f. [3:1017] Mt 1:712.

g. [3:10] 1 Kgs 11:43; 14:31; 15:1, 8, 24; 2 Chr 9:31; 12:16; 13:23; 17:1.

h. [3:11] 1 Kgs 22:51; 2 Chr 21:1; 22:1; 24:1, 27.

i. [3:12] 2 Kgs 12:21; 14:21; 15:7; 2 Chr 25:1; 26:1, 23; 27:1.

j. [3:13] 2 Kgs 15:38; 16:20; 20:21; 2 Chr 28:1, 27; 32:33.

k. [3:14] 2 Kgs 21:18, 26; 2 Chr 33:20, 25.

l. [3:15] 2 Kgs 23:34; 24:17; 2 Chr 36:4, 10.

m. [3:16] 2 Kgs 24:6, 17; 2 Chr 36:8, 10.

n. [3:17, 19] Ezr 2:2; 3:2, 8; 5:2; Sir 49:11; Hg 1:1, 12, 14; Mt 1:1213; Lk 3:27.

o. [3:22] Neh 3:29.

CHAPTER 4

1* The sons of Judah were: Perez, Hezron, Carmi, Hur, and Shobal.a 2Reaiah, the son of Shobal, became the father of Jahath, and Jahath became the father of Ahumai and Lahad. These were the clans of the Zorathites.

3These were the sons of Hareph, the father of Etam: Jezreel, Ishma, and Idbash; their sister was named Hazzelelponi. 4Penuel was the father of Gedor, and Ezer the father of Hushah. These were the sons of Hur, the firstborn of Ephrathah, the father of Bethlehem.

5Ashhur, the father of Tekoa, had two wives, Helah and Naarah.b 6Naarah bore him Ahuzzam, Hepher, the Temenites, and the Ahashtarites. These were the sons of Naarah. 7The sons of Helah were Zereth, Izhar, Ethnan, and Koz. 8Koz became the father of Anub and Zobebah, as well as of the clans of Aharhel, son of Harum. 9Jabez was the most distinguished of his brothers. His mother had named him Jabez, saying, “I bore him with pain.” 10Jabez prayed to the God of Israel: “Oh, that you may truly bless me and extend my boundaries! May your hand be with me and make me free of misfortune, without pain!” And God granted his prayer.

11Chelub, the brother of Shuhah, became the father of Mehir, who was the father of Eshton. 12Eshton became the father of Bethrapha, Paseah, and Tehinnah, the father of the city of Nahash. These were the men of Recah.

13The sons of Kenaz were Othniel and Seraiah. The sons of Othniel were Hathath and Meonothai;c 14Meonothai became the father of Ophrah. Seraiah became the father of Joab, the father of Geharashim, so called because they were artisans. 15The sons of Caleb, son of Jephunneh, were Ir, Elah, and Naam. The sons of Elah: Kenaz.d 16The sons of Jehallelel were Ziph, Ziphah, Tiria, and Asarel. 17The sons of Ezrah were Jether, Mered, Epher, and Jalon. Jether became the father of Miriam, Shammai, and Ishbah, the father of Eshtemoa.e 18Mered’s Egyptian wife bore Jered, the father of Gedor, Heber, the father of Soco, and Jekuthiel, the father of Zanoah. These were the sons of Bithiah, the daughter of Pharaoh, whom Mered married. 19The sons of his Jewish wife, the sister of Naham, the father of Keilah, were Shimon the Garmite and Ishi the Maacathite. 20The sons of Shimon were Amnon, Rinnah, Benhanan, and Tilon. The son of Ishi was Zoheth and the son of Zoheth….

21The sons of Shelah, son of Judah, were: Er, the father of Lecah; Laadah, the father of Mareshah; the clans of the linen weavers’ guild in Bethashbea;f 22Jokim; the people of Cozeba; and Joash and Saraph, who held property in Moab, but returned to Bethlehem. (These are events of old.) 23They were potters and inhabitants of Netaim and Gederah, where they lived in the king’s service.

Simeon. 24The sons of Simeon were Nemuel, Jamin, Jachin, Zerah, and Shaul,g 25whose son was Shallum, whose son was Mibsam, whose son was Mishma. 26The sons of Mishma were his son Hammuel, whose son was Zaccur, whose son was Shimei. 27Shimei had sixteen sons and six daughters. His brothers, however, did not have many sons, and as a result all their clans did not equal the number of the Judahites.

28They dwelt in Beer-sheba, Moladah, Hazar-shual, 29Bilhah, Ezem, Tolad, 30Bethuel, Hormah, Ziklag, 31Beth-marcaboth, Hazar-susim, Bethbiri, and Shaaraim. Until the reign of David, these were their cities 32and their villages. Etam, also, and Ain, Rimmon, Tochen, and Ashan—five cities,h 33together with all their outlying villages as far as Baal. Here is where they dwelt, and so it was inscribed of them in their family records.

34Meshobab, Jamlech, Joshah, son of Amaziah, 35Joel, Jehu, son of Joshibiah, son of Seraiah, son of Asiel, 36Elioenai, Jaakobah, Jeshohaiah, Asaiah, Adiel, Jesimiel, Benaiah, 37Ziza, son of Shiphi, son of Allon, son of Jedaiah, son of Shimri, son of Shemaiah— 38these just named were princes in their clans, and their ancestral houses spread out to such an extenti 39that they went to the approaches of Gedor,* east of the valley, seeking pasture for their flocks. 40They found abundant and good pastures, and the land was spacious, quiet, and peaceful—for the Hamites dwelt there formerly. 41They who have just been listed by name set out during the reign of Hezekiah, king of Judah, and attacked their tents and also the Meunites who were there. They put them under the ban that is still in force to this day and dwelt in their place because they found pasture there for their flocks.j

42Five hundred of them (the Simeonites) went to Mount Seir, with Pelatiah, Neariah, Rephaiah, and Uzziel, sons of Ishi, at their head. 43They attacked the surviving Amalekites who had escaped, and have lived there to the present day.k

* [4:143] Genealogies of the southern tribes, Judah and Simeon.

* [4:39] Gedor: the Greek reads Gerar, probably correctly.

a. [4:1] 1 Chr 2:45, 7, 9, 50; Gn 38:29; 46:12; Mt 1:3.

b. [4:5] 1 Chr 2:24.

c. [4:13] Jos 15:17; Jgs 1:13; 3:9, 11.

d. [4:15] Nm 13:6; 14:6; 32:12; Jos 14:6, 14.

e. [4:17] 1 Sm 30:28.

f. [4:21] 1 Chr 2:3; Gn 38:5; 46:12; Nm 26:20.

g. [4:24] Gn 46:10; Ex 6:15; Nm 26:1213.

h. [4:2832] Jos 19:28.

i. [4:38] Nm 1:2.

j. [4:41] 2 Kgs 18:12; 2 Chr 29:1.

k. [4:43] Ex 17:8, 14; Dt 25:1719; 1 Sm 14:48; 15:3, 78; 2 Sm 8:12.

CHAPTER 5

Reuben. 1* The sons of Reuben, the firstborn of Israel. (He was indeed the firstborn, but because he defiled the couch of his father his birthright was given to the sons of Joseph, son of Israel, so that he is not listed in the family records according to his birthright.a 2Judah, in fact, became powerful among his brothers, so that the ruler came from him, though the birthright had been Joseph’s.)b 3The sons of Reuben, the firstborn of Israel, were Hanoch, Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi.c 4His son was Joel, whose son was Shemaiah, whose son was Gog, whose son was Shimei, 5whose son was Micah, whose son was Reaiah, whose son was Baal, 6whose son was Beerah, whom Tilgath-pileser, the king of Assyria, took into exile; he was a prince of the Reubenites.d 7His brothers who belonged to his clans, when they were listed in the family records according to their descendants, were: Jeiel, the chief, and Zechariah, 8and Bela, son of Azaz, son of Shema, son of Joel. The Reubenites lived in Aroer and as far as Nebo and Baal-meon;e 9toward the east they dwelt as far as the wilderness which extends from the Euphrates River, for they had much livestock in the land of Gilead.f 10In Saul’s time they waged war with the Hagrites, and when they had defeated them they dwelt in their tents throughout the region east of Gilead.g

Gad. 11The Gadites lived alongside them in the land of Bashan as far as Salecah.h 12Joel was chief, Shapham was second in command, and Janai was judge in Bashan.i 13Their brothers, according to their ancestral houses, were: Michael, Meshullam, Sheba, Jorai, Jacan, Zia, and Eber—seven. 14These were the sons of Abihail, son of Huri, son of Jaroah, son of Gilead, son of Michael, son of Jeshishai, son of Jahdo, son of Buz. 15Ahi, son of Abdiel, son of Guni, was the head of their ancestral houses. 16They dwelt in Gilead, in Bashan and its towns, and in all the pasture lands of Sirion to the borders. 17All were listed in the family records in the time of Jotham, king of Judah, and of Jeroboam, king of Israel.

18The Reubenites, Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasseh were warriors, men who bore shield and sword and who drew the bow, trained in warfare—forty-four thousand seven hundred and sixty men fit for military service. 19When they waged war against the Hagrites and against Jetur, Naphish, and Nodab,j 20they received help so that the Hagrites and all who were with them were delivered into their power. For during the battle they cried out to God, and he heard them because they had put their trust in him.k 21Along with one hundred thousand persons they also captured their livestock: fifty thousand camels, two hundred fifty thousand sheep, and two thousand donkeys. 22Many were slain and fell; for “From God the victory.” They dwelt in their place until the time of the exile.l

The Half-tribe of Manasseh. 23The half-tribe of Manasseh lived in the land of Bashan as far as Baal-hermon, Senir, and Mount Hermon; they were numerous. 24The following were the heads of their ancestral houses: Epher, Ishi, Eliel, Azriel, Jeremiah, Hodaviah, and Jahdiel—men who were warriors, famous men, and heads over their ancestral houses.

25However, they acted treacherously toward the God of their ancestors by prostituting themselves to follow the gods of the peoples of the land, whom God had destroyed before them.m 26Therefore the God of Israel stirred up against them the anger of Pul,* king of Assyria, and the anger of Tilgath-pilneser [sic], king of Assyria, who deported the Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasseh and brought them to Halah, Habor, and Hara, and to the river Gozan, where they have remained to this day.n

Levi.* 27The sons of Levi were Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.o 28The sons of Kohath were Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel.p 29The children of Amram were Aaron, Moses, and Miriam. The sons of Aaron were Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar.q 30* Eleazar became the father of Phinehas. Phinehas became the father of Abishua. 31Abishua became the father of Bukki. Bukki became the father of Uzzi. 32Uzzi became the father of Zerahiah. Zerahiah became the father of Meraioth. 33Meraioth became the father of Amariah. Amariah became the father of Ahitub. 34Ahitub became the father of Zadok. Zadok became the father of Ahimaaz. 35Ahimaaz became the father of Azariah. Azariah became the father of Johanan. 36Johanan became the father of Azariah, who served as priest in the temple Solomon built in Jerusalem. 37Azariah became the father of Amariah. Amariah became the father of Ahitub. 38Ahitub became the father of Zadok. Zadok became the father of Shallum. 39Shallum became the father of Hilkiah. Hilkiah became the father of Azariah. 40Azariah became the father of Seraiah. Seraiah became the father of Jehozadak. 41Jehozadak was one of those who went into the exile which the LORD inflicted on Judah and Jerusalem through Nebuchadnezzar.

* [5:126] Genealogies of the Transjordanian tribes, Reuben, Gad, and the half-tribe of Manasseh.

* [5:26] Pul: the Chronicler seems to speak of two different kings here, but Pul was the name which the Assyrian king Tilgath-pileser III (745–727 B.C.) adopted as king of Babylon.

* [5:276:66] The tribe of Levi. The Chronicler’s list gives special prominence to Levi’s son Kohath, from whom were descended both the Aaronite priests (vv. 2841) and the leading group of Temple singers (6:1823).

* [5:3041] The line of preexilic high priests. The list seems to become confused in vv. 3638, which repeat the same names, mostly in inverse order, that occur in vv. 3436. A similar but shorter list occurs, with variations, in Ezr 7:15.

a. [5:1] Gn 35:22; 48:5, 1522; 49:34; Dt 33:6.

b. [5:2] 1 Chr 28:4; Gn 49:812.

c. [5:3] Gn 46:9; Ex 6:14; Nm 26:56.

d. [5:6] 2 Kgs 15:29.

e. [5:8] Jos 13:9, 1617; Nm 32:3, 38.

f. [5:9] Jos 22:9.

g. [5:10] Ps 83:67.

h. [5:11] Jos 13:11, 2428.

i. [5:12] Gn 46:16.

j. [5:19] 1 Chr 1:31; 5:10; Gn 25:15; Ps 83:67.

k. [5:20] Dt 33:2021.

l. [5:22] Nm 32:39; Dt 3:810; Jgs 3:3.

m. [5:25] Ex 34:1416; 2 Kgs 17:7.

n. [5:26] 2 Kgs 15:9, 29; 17:6.

o. [5:27] 1 Chr 6:1; 23:6; Gn 46:11; Ex 6:16; Nm 26:57.

p. [5:28] 1 Chr 6:3; Ex 6:18.

q. [5:29] Ex 6:20; Nm 26:5960.

CHAPTER 6

1The sons of Levi were Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.a 2The sons of Gershon were named Libni and Shimei.b 3The sons of Kohath were Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel.c 4The sons of Merari were Mahli and Mushi.d

These were the clans of Levi, according to their ancestors. 5Of Gershon: his son Libni, whose son was Jahath, whose son was Zimmah, 6whose son was Joah, whose son was Iddo, whose son was Zerah, whose son was Jetherai.

7The sons of Kohath: his son Amminadab, whose son was Korah, whose son was Assir, 8whose son was Elkanah, whose son was Ebiasaph, whose son was Assir, 9whose son was Tahath, whose son was Uriel, whose son was Uzziah, whose son was Shaul. 10The sons of Elkanah were Amasai and Ahimoth, 11whose son was Elkanah, whose son was Zophai, whose son was Nahath, 12whose son was Eliab, whose son was Jeroham, whose son was Elkanah, whose son was Samuel. 13The sons of Samuel were Joel, the firstborn, and Abijah, the second.

14The sons of Merari: Mahli, whose son was Libni, whose son was Shimei, whose son was Uzzah,e 15whose son was Shimea, whose son was Haggiah, whose son was Asaiah.

16The following were established by David for the service of song* in the LORD’s house at the time when the ark had a resting place. 17They served as singers before the tabernacle of the tent of meeting until Solomon built the house of the LORD in Jerusalem, and they performed their services according to the order prescribed for them. 18Those who so performed are the following, together with their sons.

Among the Kohathites: Heman, the chanter, son of Joel, son of Samuel, 19son of Elkanah, son of Jeroham, son of Eliel, son of Toah, 20son of Zuph, son of Elkanah, son of Mahath, son of Amasi, 21son of Elkanah, son of Joel, son of Azariah, son of Zephaniah, 22son of Tahath, son of Assir, son of Ebiasaph, son of Korah,f 23son of Izhar, son of Kohath, son of Levi, son of Israel.

24His brother Asaph stood at his right hand. Asaph was the son of Berechiah, son of Shimea, 25son of Michael, son of Baaseiah, son of Malchijah, 26son of Ethni, son of Zerah, son of Adaiah, 27son of Ethan, son of Zimmah,g son of Shimei, 28son of Jahath, son of Gershon, son of Levi.

29Their brothers, the Merarites, stood at the left: Ethan, son of Kishi, son of Abdi, son of Malluch, 30son of Hashabiah, son of Amaziah, son of Hilkiah, 31son of Amzi, son of Bani, son of Shemer, 32son of Mahli, son of Mushi, son of Merari, son of Levi.h

33Their brother Levites were appointed to all the other services of the tabernacle of the house of God.i 34However, it was Aaron and his sons who made the sacrifice on the altar for burnt offerings and on the altar of incense; they alone had charge of the holy of holies and of making atonement for Israel, as Moses, the servant of God, had commanded.j

35These were the sons of Aaron: his son Eleazar, whose son was Phinehas, whose son was Abishua, 36whose son was Bukki, whose son was Uzzi, whose son was Zerahiah, 37whose son was Meraioth, whose son was Amariah, whose son was Ahitub, 38whose son was Zadok, whose son was Ahimaaz.

39* The following were their dwelling places, by encampments in their territories. To the sons of Aaron who belonged to the clan of the Kohathites, since the lot fell to them, 40was assigned Hebron in the land of Judah, with its adjacent pasture lands. 41However, the open country and the villages belonging to the city had been given to Caleb, the son of Jephunneh. 42There were assigned to the sons of Aaron: Hebron a city of refuge, Libnah with its pasture lands, Jattir with its pasture lands, Eshtemoa with its pasture lands, 43Holon with its pasture lands, Debir with its pasture lands, 44Ashan with its pasture lands, Jetta with its pasture lands, and Beth-shemesh with its pasture lands. 45Also from the tribe of Benjamin: Gibeon with its pasture lands, Geba with its pasture lands, Almon with its pasture lands, Anathoth with its pasture lands. In all, they had thirteen cities with their pasture lands. 49The Israelites assigned these cities with their pasture lands to the Levites, 50designating them by name and assigning them by lot from the tribes of the Judahites, Simeonites, and Benjaminites.

46The other Kohathites obtained ten cities by lot for their clans from the tribe of Ephraim, from the tribe of Dan, and from the half-tribe of Manasseh. 47The clans of the Gershonites obtained thirteen cities from the tribes of Issachar, Asher, and Naphtali, and from the half-tribe of Manasseh in Bashan. 48The clans of the Merarites obtained twelve cities by lot from the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and Zebulun.

51The clans of the Kohathites obtained cities by lot from the tribe of Ephraim. 52They were assigned cities of refuge: Shechem in the mountain region of Ephraim, with its pasture lands, Gezer with its pasture lands, 53Kibzaim with its pasture lands, and Beth-horon with its pasture lands. 54From the tribe of Dan: Elteke with its pasture lands, Gibbethon with its pasture lands, Aijalon with its pasture lands, and Gath-rimmon with its pasture lands. 55From the half-tribe of Manasseh: Taanach with its pasture lands and Ibleam with its pasture lands. These belonged to the rest of the Kohathite clan.

56The clans of the Gershonites received from the half-tribe of Manasseh: Golan in Bashan with its pasture lands and Ashtaroth with its pasture lands. 57From the tribe of Issachar: Kedesh with its pasture lands, Daberath with its pasture lands, 58Ramoth with its pasture lands, and Engannim with its pasture lands. 59From the tribe of Asher: Mashal with its pasture lands, Abdon with its pasture lands, 60Hilkath with its pasture lands, and Rehob with its pasture lands. 61From the tribe of Naphtali: Kedesh in Galilee with its pasture lands, Hammon with its pasture lands, and Kiriathaim with its pasture lands.

62The rest of the Merarites received from the tribe of Zebulun: Jokneam with its pasture lands, Kartah with its pasture lands, Rimmon with its pasture lands, and Tabor with its pasture lands. 63Across the Jordan at Jericho (that is, east of the Jordan) they received from the tribe of Reuben: Bezer in the desert with its pasture lands, Jahzah with its pasture lands, 64Kedemoth with its pasture lands, and Mephaath with its pasture lands. 65From the tribe of Gad: Ramoth in Gilead with its pasture lands, Mahanaim with its pasture lands, 66Heshbon with its pasture lands, and Jazer with its pasture lands.

* [6:1632] The cultic functions performed by the levitical families in the postexilic Temple at the time of the Chronicler are here traced back to David, in a way analogous to that in which all the laws in the Pentateuch are attributed to Moses.

* [6:3966] For the rights of the Levites in the cities assigned to them, see note on Jos 21:1.

a. [6:1] 1 Chr 5:27; 23:6; Gn 46:11; Ex 6:16; Nm 26:57.

b. [6:2] Ex 6:17.

c. [6:3] Ex 6:18; Nm 3:19; 26:59.

d. [6:4] 1 Chr 6:14; Ex 6:19; Nm 3:20; 26:58.

e. [6:14] 1 Chr 6:4; Ex 6:19; Nm 3:20; 26:58.

f. [6:22] Ex 6:24.

g. [6:27] 1 Chr 6:2, 5.

h. [6:32] Ex 6:19; Nm 26:58.

i. [6:33] 1 Chr 15:17, 19; 16:4142; 2 Chr 5:12.

j. [6:34] 1 Chr 16:3940.

CHAPTER 7

Issachar. 1* The sons of Issachar were Tola, Puah, Jashub, and Shimron: four.a 2The sons of Tola were Uzzi, Rephaiah, Jeriel, Jahmai, Ibsam, and Shemuel, heads of the ancestral houses of Tola, mighty warriors in their generations. In the time of David they numbered twenty-two thousand six hundred.b 3The sons of Uzzi: Izarahiah. The sons of Izarahiah were Michael, Obadiah, Joel, and Isshiah. All five of these were chiefs. 4Along with them, in their generations, according to ancestral houses, were thirty-six thousand men in organized military troops, since they had more wives and children 5than their fellow tribesmen. In all the clans of Issachar there was a total of eighty-seven thousand warriors listed in their family records.

Benjamin. 6The sons of Benjamin were Bela, Becher, and Jediael—three.c 7The sons of Bela were Ezbon, Uzzi, Uzziel, Jerimoth, and Iri—five. They were heads of their ancestral houses and warriors. Their family records listed twenty-two thousand and thirty-four. 8The sons of Becher were Zemirah, Joash, Eliezer, Elioenai, Omri, Jeremoth, Abijah, Anathoth, and Alemeth—all these were sons of Becher.d 9Their family records listed twenty thousand two hundred of their kindred who were heads of their ancestral houses and warriors. 10The sons of Jediael: Bilhan. The sons of Bilhan were Jeush, Benjamin, Ehud, Chenaanah, Zethan, Tarshish, and Ahishahar. 11All these were sons of Jediael, heads of ancestral houses and warriors. They numbered seventeen thousand two hundred men fit for military service…* 12Shupham and Hupham.e

Dan, Naphtali and Manasseh. The sons of Dan: Hushim. 13The sons of Naphtali were Jahziel, Guni, Jezer, and Shallum. These were sons of Bilhah.f 14The sons of Manasseh, whom his Aramean concubine bore:g she bore Machir, the father of Gilead.h 15Machir took a wife whose name was Maacah; his sister’s name was Molecheth. Manasseh’s second son was named Zelophehad, who had only daughters.i 16Maacah, Machir’s wife, bore a son whom she named Peresh. He had a brother named Sheresh, whose sons were Ulam and Rakem. 17The sons of Ulam: Bedan. These were the sons of Gilead, the son of Machir, the son of Manasseh. 18His sister Molecheth bore Ishhod, Abiezer, and Mahlah. 19The sons of Shemida were Ahian, Shechem, Likhi, and Aniam.

Ephraim. 20j The sons of Ephraim: Shuthelah, whose son was Bered, whose son was Tahath, whose son was Eleadah, whose son was Tahath, 21whose son was Zabad. Ephraim’s son Shuthelah, and Ezer and Elead, who were born in the land, were killed by the inhabitants of Gath because they had gone down to take away their livestock. 22Their father Ephraim mourned a long time, but after his relatives had come and comforted him, 23he had relations with his wife, who conceived and bore a son whom he named Beriah, since evil* had befallen his house.k 24He had a daughter, Sheerah, who built Lower and Upper Beth-horon and Uzzen-sheerah. 25Zabad’s son was Rephah, whose son was Resheph, whose son was Telah, whose son was Tahan, 26whose son was Ladan, whose son was Ammihud, whose son was Elishama,l 27whose son was Nun, whose son was Joshua.

28Their property and their dwellings were in Bethel and its towns, Naaran to the east, Gezer and its towns to the west, and also Shechem and its towns as far as Ayyah and its towns.m 29Manasseh, however, had possession of Beth-shean and its towns, Taanach and its towns, Megiddo and its towns, and Dor and its towns. In these dwelt the sons of Joseph, the son of Israel.n

Asher. 30The sons of Asher were Imnah, Ishvah, Ishvi, and Beriah; their sister was Serah.o 31Beriah’s sons were Heber and Malchiel, who was the father of Birzaith. 32Heber became the father of Japhlet, Shomer, Hotham, and their sister Shua. 33The sons of Japhlet were Pasach, Bimhal, and Ashvath; these were the sons of Japhlet. 34The sons of Shomer were Ahi, Rohgah, Jehubbah, and Aram. 35The sons of his brother Hotham were Zophah, Imna, Shelesh, and Amal. 36The sons of Zophah were Suah, Harnepher, Shual, Beri, Imrah, 37Bezer, Hod, Shamma, Shilshah, Ithran, and Beera. 38The sons of Jether were Jephunneh, Pispa, and Ara. 39The sons of Ulla were Arah, Hanniel, and Rizia. 40All these were sons of Asher, heads of ancestral houses, distinguished men, warriors, and chiefs among the princes. Their family records numbered twenty-six thousand men fit for military service.

* [7:140] The seven northern tribes.

* [7:11] The Hebrew text appears to be defective.

* [7:23] Beriah…evil: the name sounds like the Hebrew word for “evil,” with the preposition be.

a. [7:1] Gn 46:13.

b. [7:2] Nm 26:2324; Jgs 10:1.

c. [7:6] Gn 46:21; Nm 26:38.

d. [7:8] Gn 46:21.

e. [7:12] Nm 26:39.

f. [7:1213] Gn 46:24; Nm 26:4849.

g. [7:1419] Nm 26:2932.

h. [7:14] Nm 26:29; Jos 17:1.

i. [7:15] Nm 26:33; Jos 17:3.

j. [7:20] Nm 26:35.

k. [7:23] 1 Chr 8:13.

l. [7:26] Nm 1:10; 2:18; 7:48; 10:22.

m. [7:28] Gn 12:8; 1 Kgs 9:16.

n. [7:29] Jos 17:11.

o. [7:30] Gn 46:17; Nm 26:4446.

CHAPTER 8

Benjamin. 1* Benjamin became the father of Bela, his firstborn, Ashbel, the second son, Aharah, the third,a 2Nohah, the fourth, and Rapha, the fifth. 3The sons of Bela were Addar and Gera, the father of Ehud. 4The sons of Ehud were Abishua, Naaman, Ahoah,b 5Gera, Shephuphan, and Huram. 6These were the sons of Ehud, family heads over those who dwelt in Geba and were deported to Manahath. 7Also Naaman, Ahijah, and Gera. The last, who led them into exile, became the father of Uzza and Ahihud. 8Shaharaim became a father on the Moabite plateau after he had put away his wives Hushim and Baara. 9By his wife Hodesh he begot Jobab, Zibia, Mesha, Malcam, 10Jeuz, Sachia, and Mirmah. These were his sons, family heads. 11By Hushim he begot Abitub and Elpaal. 12The sons of Elpaal were Eber, Misham, Shemed (who built Ono and Lod with its nearby towns),c 13and Beriah, and Shema. They were family heads of those who dwelt in Aijalon, and they put the inhabitants of Gath to flight. 14Their relatives were Elpaal, Shashak, and Jeremoth. 15Zebadiah, Arad, Eder, 16Michael, Ishpah, and Joha were the sons of Beriah. 17Zebadiah, Meshullam, Hizki, Heber, 18Ishmerai, Izliah, and Jobab were the sons of Elpaal. 19Jakim, Zichri, Zabdi, 20Elienai, Zillethai, Eliel, 21Adaiah, Beraiah, and Shimrath were the sons of Shimei. 22Ishpan, Eber, Eliel, 23Abdon, Zichri, Hanan, 24Hananiah, Elam, Anthothijah, 25Iphdeiah, and Penuel were the sons of Shashak. 26Shamsherai, Shehariah, Athaliah, 27Jaareshiah, Elijah, and Zichri were the sons of Jeroham. 28These were family heads in their generations, chiefs who dwelt in Jerusalem.

29d In Gibeon dwelt Jeiel, the founder of Gibeon, whose wife’s name was Maacah; 30also his firstborn son, Abdon, and Zur, Kish, Baal, Ner, Nadab, 31Gedor, Ahio, Zecher, and Mikloth. 32Mikloth became the father of Shimeah. These, too, dwelt with their relatives in Jerusalem, opposite their fellow tribesmen. 33e Ner became the father of Kish, and Kish became the father of Saul. Saul became the father of Jonathan, Malchishua, Abinadab, and Eshbaal.f 34The son of Jonathan was Meribbaal, and Meribbaal became the father of Micah.g 35The sons of Micah were Pithon, Melech, Tarea, and Ahaz. 36Ahaz became the father of Jehoaddah, and Jehoaddah became the father of Alemeth, Azmaveth, and Zimri. Zimri became the father of Moza.h 37Moza became the father of Binea, whose son was Raphah, whose son was Eleasah, whose son was Azel. 38Azel had six sons, whose names were Azrikam, his firstborn, Ishmael, Sheariah, Azariah, Obadiah, and Hanan; all these were the sons of Azel.i 39The sons of Eshek, his brother, were Ulam, his firstborn, Jeush, the second son, and Eliphelet, the third. 40The sons of Ulam were warriors, skilled with the bow, and they had many sons and grandsons: one hundred and fifty. All these were the sons of Benjamin.

* [8:140] A second, variant list (cf. 7:611) of the Benjaminites, highlighting the family of Saul (vv. 3340).

a. [8:1] 1 Chr 7:6; Gn 46:21; Nm 26:3844.

b. [8:4] Jgs 3:15.

c. [8:12] Neh 11:35.

d. [8:2932] 1 Chr 9:3538.

e. [8:3338] 1 Chr 9:3944.

f. [8:33] 1 Chr 10:2; 1 Sm 9:1; 14:49, 51; 31:2.

g. [8:34] 2 Sm 4:4; 9:6; 10:12.

h. [8:36] 1 Chr 9:42.

i. [8:38] 1 Chr 9:43.

CHAPTER 9

1Thus all Israel was listed in family lists, and these are recorded in the book of the kings of Israel.a

Now Judah had been exiled to Babylon because of its treachery. 2* b The first to settle again in their cities and dwell there were certain Israelites, the priests, the Levites, and the temple servants.c

Jerusalemites. 3In Jerusalem lived Judahites and Benjaminites; also Ephraimites and Manassites. 4Among the Judahites was Uthai, son of Ammihud, son of Omri, son of Imri, son of Bani, one of the sons of Perez, son of Judah. 5Among the Shelanites were Asaiah, the firstborn, and his sons. 6Among the Zerahites were Jeuel and six hundred and ninety of their relatives. 7Among the Benjaminites were Sallu, son of Meshullam, son of Hodaviah, son of Hassenuah, 8as well as Ibneiah, son of Jeroham; Elah, son of Uzzi, son of Michri; Meshullam, son of Shephatiah, son of Reuel, son of Ibnijah. 9Their kindred of various families were nine hundred and fifty-six. All those named were heads of their ancestral houses.

10Among the priests were Jedaiah; Jehoiarib; Jachin; 11Azariah, son of Hilkiah, son of Meshullam, son of Zadok, son of Meraioth, son of Ahitub, the ruler of the house of God; 12Adaiah, son of Jeroham, son of Pashhur, son of Malchijah; Maasai, son of Adiel, son of Jahzerah, son of Meshullam, son of Meshillemith, son of Immer. 13Their brothers, heads of their ancestral houses, were one thousand seven hundred and sixty, valiant in the work of the service of the house of God.

14Among the Levites were Shemaiah, son of Hasshub, son of Azrikam, son of Hashabiah, one of the sons of Merari; 15Bakbakkar; Heresh; Galal; Mattaniah, son of Mica, son of Zichri, a descendant of Asaph; 16Obadiah, son of Shemaiah, son of Galal, a descendant of Jeduthun; and Berechiah, son of Asa, son of Elkanah, whose family lived in the villages of the Netophathites.

17The gatekeepers were Shallum, Akkub, Talmon, Ahiman, and their brothers; Shallum was the chief. 18Previously they had stood guard at the king’s gate on the east side; now they became gatekeepers for the encampments of the Levites. 19Shallum, son of Kore, son of Ebiasaph, a descendant of Korah, and his brothers of the same ancestral house of the Korahites had as their assigned task the guarding of the threshold of the tent, just as their fathers had guarded the entrance to the encampment of the LORD. 20Phinehas, son of Eleazar, had been their chief in times past; the LORD was with him.d 21Zechariah, son of Meshelemiah, guarded the gate of the tent of meeting.e 22In all, those who were chosen for gatekeepers at the threshold were two hundred and twelve. They were inscribed in the family records of their villages. David and Samuel the seer had established them in their position of trust. 23Thus they and their sons kept guard over the gates of the house of the LORD, the house which was then a tent. 24The gatekeepers were stationed at the four sides, to the east, the west, the north, and the south.f 25Their brothers who lived in their own villages took turns in assisting them for seven-day periods,g 26while the four chief gatekeepers were on permanent duty. These were the Levites who also had charge of the chambers and treasures of the house of God. 27They would spend the night near the house of God, for it was in their charge and they had the duty of opening it each morning.

28Some of them had charge of the vessels used there, tallying them as they were brought in and taken out. 29Others were appointed to take care of the utensils and all the sacred vessels, as well as the fine flour, the wine, the oil, the frankincense, and the spices. 30It was the sons of priests, however, who mixed the spiced ointments.h 31i Mattithiah, one of the Levites, the firstborn of Shallum the Korahite, was entrusted with preparing the cakes. 32Benaiah the Kohathite, one of their brothers, was in charge of setting out the showbread each sabbath.j

33These were the singers and the gatekeepers, family heads over the Levites. They stayed in the chambers when free of duty, for day and night they had to be ready for service. 34These were the levitical family heads by their generations, chiefs who dwelt in Jerusalem.

II. THE HISTORY OF DAVID

Genealogy of Saul. 35k Jeiel, the founder of Gibeon, dwelt in Gibeon; his wife’s name was Maacah. 36His firstborn son was Abdon; then came Zur, Kish, Baal, Ner, Nadab, 37Gedor, Ahio, Zechariah, and Mikloth. 38Mikloth became the father of Shimeam. These, too, with their relatives, dwelt opposite their relatives in Jerusalem. 39Ner became the father of Kish, and Kish became the father of Saul. Saul became the father of Jonathan, Malchishua, Abinadab, and Eshbaal. 40The son of Jonathan was Meribbaal, and Meribbaal became the father of Micah. 41The sons of Micah were Pithon, Melech, Tahrea, and Ahaz. 42Ahaz became the father of Jehoaddah, and Jehoaddah became the father of Alemeth, Azmaveth, and Zimri. Zimri became the father of Moza. 43Moza became the father of Binea, whose son was Rephaiah, whose son was Eleasah, whose son was Azel. 44Azel had six sons, whose names were Azrikam, his firstborn, Ishmael, Sheariah, Azariah, Obadiah, and Hanan; these were the sons of Azel.

* [9:234] The inhabitants of Jerusalem after the exile. A similar list, though with many variants in the names, occurs in Neh 11:324.

a. [9:1] 2 Chr 16:11; 20:34; 25:26; 27:7; 33:18; 36:8.

b. [9:234] Neh 11:324.

c. [9:2] Ezr 2:70; 7:7; Neh 11:3.

d. [9:20] Ex 6:25; Nm 25:7, 11; Jgs 20:28.

e. [9:21] 1 Chr 26:2, 14.

f. [9:24] 1 Chr 26:13.

g. [9:25] 2 Chr 23:45.

h. [9:30] Ex 30:2033.

i. [9:3132] 1 Chr 23:29; Lv 2:115; 6:1316; 7:11.

j. [9:32] Ex 25:30; Lv 24:58.

k. [9:3544] 1 Chr 8:2938.

CHAPTER 10

Death of Saul and His Sons. 1a Now the Philistines went to war against Israel, and Israel fled before them, and they fell, slain on Mount Gilboa. 2The Philistines pressed hard after Saul and his sons. When the Philistines had struck down Jonathan, Abinadab, and Malchishua, sons of Saul, 3the fury of the battle converged on Saul. Then the archers hit him, and he was severely wounded.

4Saul said to his armor-bearer, “Draw your sword and run me through; otherwise these uncircumcised will come and abuse me.” But the armor-bearer, badly frightened, refused, so Saul took his own sword and fell upon it. 5When the armor-bearer saw that Saul was dead, he too fell upon his sword and died. 6Thus Saul, and his three sons, his whole house, died together. 7When all the Israelites in the valley saw that Saul and his sons had fled and that they had died, they abandoned their cities and fled. Then the Philistines came and lived in those cities.

8On the following day, when the Philistines came to strip the slain, they found Saul and his sons fallen on Mount Gilboa. 9They stripped him, and took his head and his armor; these they sent throughout the land of the Philistines to bring the good news to their idols and to the people. 10They put his armor in the temple of their gods, but his skull they impaled at the temple of Dagon.

Burial of Saul. 11When all the inhabitants of Jabesh-gilead heard all that the Philistines had done to Saul, 12all their warriors set out, recovered the corpses of Saul and his sons, and brought them to Jabesh. They buried their bones under the oak of Jabesh, and fasted for seven days.b

13* Thus Saul died because of his treason against the LORD in disobeying his word, and also because he had sought counsel from a ghost,c 14rather than from the LORD. Therefore the LORD took his life, and turned his kingdom over to David, the son of Jesse.d

* [10:1314] The Chronicler explains why Saul met his tragic end: he had disobeyed the Lord’s command given through the prophet Samuel (1 Sm 15:39), and had consulted a necromancer (1 Sm 28:619), contrary to the Mosaic law (Dt 18:1011).

a. [10:112] 1 Sm 31:113.

b. [10:12] 2 Sm 2:5.

c. [10:13] Dt 18:1014; 1 Sm 13:1314; 15:3, 11, 26.

d. [10:14] 1 Sm 15:28; 2 Sm 3:910.

CHAPTER 11

David Is Made King. 1a Then all Israel gathered around David in Hebron, and they said: “Look! We are your bone and your flesh. 2In days past, when Saul was still the king, it was you who led Israel in all its battles. And now the LORD, your God, has said to you: You shall shepherd my people Israel; you shall be ruler over my people Israel.”b 3Then all the elders of Israel came to the king at Hebron, and at Hebron David made a covenant with them in the presence of the LORD; and they anointed David king over Israel, in accordance with the word of the LORD given through Samuel.c

Jerusalem Captured. 4Then David and all Israel went to Jerusalem, that is, Jebus, where the inhabitants of the land were called Jebusites.d 5The inhabitants of Jebus said to David, “You shall not enter here.” David nevertheless captured the fortress of Zion, which is the City of David. 6David said, “Whoever strikes the Jebusites first shall be made chief and captain.” Joab, the son of Zeruiah, was the first to attack; and so he became chief.e 7David took up residence in the fortress, which therefore was called the City of David. 8He built up the city on all sides, from the Millo all the way around, while Joab restored the rest of the city.f 9David became ever more powerful, for the LORD of hosts was with him.

David’s Warriors. 10g These were David’s chief warriors who, together with all Israel, supported him in his reign in order to make him king, according to the LORD’s word concerning Israel.

11Here is the list of David’s warriors:

Ishbaal, the son of Hachamoni, chief of the Three.* He brandished his spear over three hundred, whom he had slain in a single encounter.

12Next to him was Eleazar, the son of Dodo the Ahohite, one of the Three warriors.h 13He was with David at Pas-dammim, where the Philistines had massed for battle. There was a plot of land full of barley. The people were fleeing before the Philistines,i 14but he took his stand in the middle of the plot, kept it safe, and cut down the Philistines. Thus the LORD brought about a great victory.

15Three of the Thirty chiefs went down to the rock, to David, who was in the cave of Adullam while the Philistines were encamped in the valley of Rephaim.j 16David was then in the stronghold, and a Philistine garrison was at Bethlehem. 17David had a strong craving, and said, “If only someone would give me a drink of water from the cistern by the gate of Bethlehem!” 18Thereupon the Three broke through the encampment of the Philistines, drew water from the cistern by the gate of Bethlehem, and carried it back to David. But David refused to drink it. Instead, he poured it out* to the LORD, 19saying, “God forbid that I should do such a thing! Could I drink the blood of these men who risked their lives? For at the risk of their lives they brought it.” So he refused to drink it. Such deeds as these the Three warriors performed.

20k Abishai, the brother of Joab, was the chief of the Thirty;* he brandished his spear over three hundred, whom he had slain. He made a name beside the Three,l 21but was twice as famous as any of the Thirty, becoming their leader. However, he did not attain to the Three.

22Benaiah, son of Jehoiada, a valiant man of mighty deeds, from Kabzeel, killed the two sons of Ariel of Moab. Also, he went down and killed the lion in the cistern on a snowy day. 23He likewise slew the Egyptian, a huge man five cubits tall. The Egyptian carried a spear that was like a weaver’s beam, but Benaiah came against him with a staff; he wrested the spear from the Egyptian’s hand, and killed him with that spear. 24Such deeds as these Benaiah, the son of Jehoiada, performed, and he made a name beside the Three warriors, 25but was more famous than any of the Thirty. However, he did not attain to the Three. David put him in charge of his bodyguard.m

26Also these warriors: Asahel, the brother of Joab; Elhanan, son of Dodo, from Bethlehem;n 27Shammoth, from En-harod; Helez, from Beth-pelet; 28Ira, son of Ikkesh, from Tekoa; Abiezer, from Anathoth; 29Sibbecai, from Husha; Ilai, from Ahoh;o 30Maharai, from Netophah; Heled, son of Baanah, from Netophah;p 31Ithai, son of Ribai, from Gibeah of Benjamin; Benaiah, from Pirathon;q 32Hurai, from Nahale-gaash; Abiel, from Beth-arabah; 33Azmaveth, from Bahurim; Eliahba, from Shaalbon; 34Jashen the Gunite; Jonathan, son of Shagee the Hararite; 35Ahiam, son of Sachar the Hararite; Elipheleth, son of 36Ahasbai, from Beth-maacah; Ahijah, from Gilo; 37Hezro, from Carmel; Naarai, the son of Ezbai; 38Joel, brother of Nathan, from Rehob, the Gadite; 39Zelek the Ammonite; Naharai, from Beeroth, the armor-bearer of Joab, son of Zeruiah; 40Ira, from Jattir; Gareb, from Jattir; 41Uriah the Hittite; Zabad, son of Ahlai, 42and, in addition to the Thirty, Adina, son of Shiza, the Reubenite, chief of the tribe of Reuben; 43Hanan, son of Maacah; Joshaphat the Mithnite; 44Uzzia, the Ashterathite; Shama and Jeiel, sons of Hotham, from Aroer; 45Jediael, son of Shimri, and Joha, his brother, the Tizite; 46Eliel the Mahavite; Jeribai and Joshaviah, sons of Elnaam; Ithmah, from Moab; 47Eliel, Obed, and Jaasiel the Mezobian.

* [11:11] The Three: the Chronicler actually names only two of these figures, Ishbaal and Eleazar. According to 2 Sm 23:11, the third member of the Three was Shammah.

* [11:18] Poured it out: as a libation.

* [11:20] The Thirty: they are listed by name in vv. 2647. The parallel list in 2 Sm 23:839 often differs in names and spellings; for the numbers, see note on 2 Sm 23:839.

a. [11:19] 2 Sm 5:110.

b. [11:2] 1 Sm 18:5, 1316, 30; 19:8.

c. [11:3] 1 Sm 16:1, 13; 2 Sm 2:4.

d. [11:4] Jos 15:8; Jgs 1:21; 19:1011.

e. [11:6] 2 Sm 8:16.

f. [11:8] 1 Kgs 9:15, 24; 11:27; 2 Chr 32:5.

g. [11:1041] 2 Sm 23:839.

h. [11:12] 1 Chr 27:4.

i. [11:13] 1 Sm 17:1.

j. [11:15] 1 Chr 14:9; 2 Sm 5:18, 22.

k. [11:2021] 2 Sm 23:1819.

l. [11:20] 1 Chr 18:12; 1 Sm 26:610; 2 Sm 16:9; 18:2; 21:17.

m. [11:25] 2 Sm 8:18; 20:23.

n. [11:26] 1 Chr 2:16; 27:7.

o. [11:29] 1 Chr 27:11.

p. [11:30] 1 Chr 27:13.

q. [11:31] 1 Chr 27:14.

CHAPTER 12

David’s Early Followers. 1The following men came to David in Ziklag while he was still under banishment from Saul, son of Kish; they, too, were among the warriors who helped him in his battles.a 2They were archers who could use either the right or the left hand, both in slinging stones and in shooting arrows with the bow. They were some of Saul’s kinsmen, from Benjamin. 3Ahiezer was their chief, along with Joash, both sons of Shemaah of Gibeah; also Jeziel and Pelet, sons of Azmaveth; Beracah; Jehu, from Anathoth;b 4Ishmaiah the Gibeonite, a warrior among the Thirty, and over the Thirty; 5Jeremiah; Jahaziel; Johanan; Jozabad from Gederah; 6Eluzai; Jerimoth; Bealiah; Shemariah; Shephatiah the Haruphite; 7Elkanah, Isshiah, Azarel, Joezer, and Jashobeam, who were Korahites; 8Joelah and Zebadiah, sons of Jeroham, from Gedor.

9Some of the Gadites also went over to David when he was at the stronghold in the wilderness. They were valiant warriors, experienced soldiers equipped with shield and spear, fearsome as lions, swift as gazelles on the mountains.c 10Ezer was their chief, Obadiah was second, Eliab third, 11Mishmannah fourth, Jeremiah fifth, 12Attai sixth, Eliel seventh, 13Johanan eighth, Elzabad ninth, 14Jeremiah tenth, and Machbannai eleventh. 15These Gadites were army commanders, the lesser over hundreds and the greater over thousands. 16It was they who crossed over the Jordan in the first month, when it was overflowing both its banks, and chased away all who were in the valleys to the east and to the west.

17Some Benjaminites and Judahites also came to David at the stronghold. 18David went out to meet them and addressed them in these words: “If you come peacefully, to help me, I am of a mind to have you join me. But if you have come to betray me to my enemies though my hands have done no wrong, may the God of our ancestors see and punish you.”

19Then a spirit clothed Amasai, the chief of the Thirty, and he answered David:

“We are yours, O David,

we are with you, son of Jesse.

Peace, peace to you,

and peace to him who helps you;

may your God be your helper!”

So David received them and placed them among the leaders of his troops.

20Men from Manasseh also deserted to David when he came with the Philistines to battle against Saul. However, he did not help the Philistines, for their lords took counsel and sent him home, saying, “At the cost of our heads he will desert to his master Saul.” 21As he was returning to Ziklag, therefore, these deserted to him from Manasseh: Adnah, Jozabad, Jediael, Michael, Jozabad, Elihu, and Zillethai, chiefs of thousands of Manasseh.* 22They helped David by taking charge of his troops, for they were all warriors and became commanders of his army. 23And from day to day men kept coming to David’s help until there was a vast encampment, like God’s own encampment.

The Assembly at Hebron. 24This is the muster of the detachments of armed troops that came to David at Hebron to bring Saul’s kingdom over to him, as the LORD had ordained. 25* Judahites bearing shields and spears: six thousand eight hundred armed troops. 26Of the Simeonites, warriors fit for battle: seven thousand one hundred. 27Of the Levites: four thousand six hundred, 28along with Jehoiada, leader of the line of Aaron, with another three thousand seven hundred, 29and Zadok, a young warrior, with twenty-two princes of his father’s house. 30Of the Benjaminites, the kinsmen of Saul: three thousand—until this time, most of them had kept their allegiance to the house of Saul. 31Of the Ephraimites: twenty thousand eight hundred warriors, men renowned in their ancestral houses. 32Of the half-tribe of Manasseh: eighteen thousand, designated by name to come and make David king. 33Of the Issacharites, their chiefs who were endowed with an understanding of the times and who knew what Israel had to do: two hundred chiefs, together with all their kinsmen under their command. 34From Zebulun, men fit for military service, set in battle array with every kind of weapon for war: fifty thousand men rallying with a single purpose. 35From Naphtali: one thousand captains, and with them, armed with shield and lance, thirty-seven thousand men. 36Of the Danites, set in battle array: twenty-eight thousand six hundred. 37From Asher, fit for military service and set in battle array: forty thousand. 38From the other side of the Jordan, of the Reubenites, Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasseh, men equipped with every kind of weapon of war: one hundred and twenty thousand.

39All these soldiers, drawn up in battle order, came to Hebron with the resolute intention of making David king over all Israel. The rest of Israel was likewise of one mind to make David king. 40They remained with David for three days, eating and drinking, for their relatives had prepared for them. 41Moreover, their neighbors from as far as Issachar, Zebulun, and Naphtali came bringing food on donkeys, camels, mules, and oxen—provisions in great quantity of meal, pressed figs, raisins, wine, oil, oxen, and sheep. For there was rejoicing in Israel.

* [12:21] See note on 27:115.

* [12:2538] The Chronicler here takes the brief account of David’s installation as king in 2 Sm 5:13 (= 1 Chr 11:13) and expands it in line with his exaltation of David and his dynasty.

a. [12:1] 1 Sm 27:17.

b. [12:3] 1 Chr 27:12.

c. [12:9] Dt 33:20.

CHAPTER 13

Transfer of the Ark. 1a After David had taken counsel with his commanders of thousands and of hundreds, that is, with every leader, 2he said to the whole assembly of Israel: “If it seems good to you, and is so decreed by the LORD our God, let us send to the rest of our kindred from all the districts of Israel, and also the priests and the Levites from their cities with pasture lands, that they may join us;b 3and let us bring the ark of our God here among us, for in the days of Saul we did not consult it.” 4And the whole assembly agreed to do it, for it seemed right in the eyes of all the people.

5Then David assembled all Israel, from Shihor of Egypt* to Lebo-hamath, to bring the ark of God from Kiriath-jearim.c 6David and all Israel went up to Baalah, that is, to Kiriath-jearim, of Judah, to bring up from there the ark of God, which was known by the name “LORD enthroned upon the cherubim.”d 7They transported the ark of God on a new cart from the house of Abinadab; Uzzah and Ahio were guiding the cart, 8while David and all Israel danced before God with all their might, with singing, and with lyres, harps, tambourines, cymbals, and trumpets.

9As they reached the threshing floor of Chidon,* Uzzah stretched out his hand to steady the ark, for the oxen were tipping it. 10Then the LORD became angry with Uzzah and struck him, because he had laid his hand on the ark; he died there in God’s presence. 11David was angry because the LORD’s anger had broken out against Uzzah. Therefore that place has been called Perez-uzzah* even to this day.

12David was afraid of God that day, and he said, “How can I bring in the ark of God to me?” 13Therefore he did not take the ark with him into the City of David, but deposited it instead at the house of Obed-edom the Gittite. 14The ark of God remained in the house of Obed-edom with his family for three months, and the LORD blessed Obed-edom’s household and all that he possessed.e

* [13:5] Shihor of Egypt: the eastern branch of the Nile delta. Lebo-hamath: in southern Syria.

* [13:9] Chidon: in 2 Sm 6:6 the name is Nodan (variant: Nacon).

* [13:11] Perez-uzzah: this Hebrew phrase means “the breaking out against Uzza.”

a. [13:114] 2 Sm 6:111.

b. [13:2] Nm 35:18; Jos 14:4; 21:242.

c. [13:5] 1 Chr 15:3; Jos 13:3, 5; 1 Sm 6:21; 7:12; 2 Sm 6:111.

d. [13:6] Jos 15:9; 18:14; 1 Sm 4:4; 7:1.

e. [13:14] 1 Chr 26:45.

CHAPTER 14

David in Jerusalem. 1a Hiram, king of Tyre, sent envoys to David along with cedar wood, and masons and carpenters to build him a house.* b 2David now knew* that the LORD had truly established him as king over Israel, for his kingdom was greatly exalted for the sake of his people Israel. 3David took other wives in Jerusalem and became the father of more sons and daughters. 4These are the names of those who were born to him in Jerusalem: Shammua, Shobab, Nathan, Solomon, 5Ibhar, Elishua, Elpelet, 6Nogah, Nepheg, Japhia, 7Elishama, Beeliada, and Eliphelet.c

The Philistine Wars. 8When the Philistines had heard that David was anointed king over all Israel, they marched out in force looking for him. But when David heard of this, he went out against them. 9Meanwhile the Philistines had come and raided the valley of Rephaim.d 10David inquired of God, “Shall I attack the Philistines, and will you deliver them into my power?” The LORD answered him, “Attack, for I have delivered them into your power.” 11So they attacked, at Baal-perazim, and David defeated them there. Then David said, “By my hand God has broken through my enemies just as water breaks through a dam.” Therefore that place was called Baal-perazim.* 12The Philistines abandoned their gods there, and David ordered them to be burnt.e

13Once again the Philistines raided the valley, 14and again David inquired of God. But God answered him: Do not try to pursue them, but go around them and come against them near the balsam trees. 15When you hear the sound of marching in the tops of the balsam trees, then go forth to battle, for God has already gone before you to strike the army of the Philistines. 16David did as God commanded him, and they routed the Philistine army from Gibeon to Gezer.

17Thus David’s fame was spread abroad through every land, and the LORD put the fear of him on all the nations.

* [14:1] The Chronicler’s account of David’s establishment as king and his victories over the Philistines follows 2 Sm 5:1125, but makes David’s rule even more prominent.

* [14:2] David now knew: see note on 2 Sm 5:12.

* [14:11] See note on 2 Sm 5:20.

a. [14:116] 2 Sm 5:1125.

b. [14:1] 2 Sm 5:11; 2 Chr 2:4.

c. [14:37] 1 Chr 3:58; 2 Sm 5:1316.

d. [14:9] 1 Chr 11:15.

e. [14:12] Dt 7:5, 25.

CHAPTER 15

Preparations for Moving the Ark. 1David built houses for himself in the City of David and prepared a place for the ark of God, pitching a tent for it there. 2At that time he said, “No one may carry the ark of God except the Levites, for the LORD chose them to carry the ark of the LORD and to minister to him forever.”a 3Then David assembled all Israel to Jerusalem to bring up the ark of the LORD to its place, which he had prepared for it.b 4David also convened the sons of Aaron and the Levites: 5of the sons of Kohath, Uriel, their chief, and one hundred and twenty of his brothers; 6of the sons of Merari, Asaiah, their chief, and two hundred and twenty of his brothers; 7of the sons of Gershon, Joel, their chief, and one hundred and thirty of his brothers; 8of the sons of Elizaphan, Shemaiah, their chief, and two hundred of his brothers; 9of the sons of Hebron, Eliel, their chief, and eighty of his brothers; 10of the sons of Uzziel, Amminadab, their chief, and one hundred and twelve of his brothers.

11David summoned the priests Zadok and Abiathar, and the Levites Uriel, Asaiah, Joel, Shemaiah, Eliel, and Amminadab,c 12and said to them: “You heads of the levitical houses, sanctify yourselves along with your brothers to bring up the ark of the LORD, the God of Israel, to the place which I have prepared for it.d 13Because you were not with us the first time, the LORD our God broke out against us, for we did not seek him aright.”e 14Accordingly, the priests and the Levites sanctified themselves to bring up the ark of the LORD, the God of Israel. 15The Levites carried the ark of God on their shoulders with poles, as Moses had commanded according to the word of the LORD.f

16David commanded the commanders of the Levites to appoint their brothers as singers and to play on musical instruments, harps, lyres, and cymbals, to make a loud sound of rejoicing.g 17Therefore the Levites appointed Heman, son of Joel, and, among his brothers, Asaph, son of Berechiah; and among the sons of Merari, their brothers, Ethan, son of Kushaiah;h 18and, together with these, their brothers of the second rank: the gatekeepers Zechariah, Uzziel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Unni, Eliab, Benaiah, Maaseiah, Mattithiah, Eliphelehu, Mikneiah, Obed-edom, and Jeiel. 19The singers, Heman, Asaph, and Ethan, sounded brass cymbals. 20Zechariah, Uzziel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Unni, Eliab, Maaseiah, and Benaiah played on harps set to “Alamoth.”* 21But Mattithiah, Eliphelehu, Mikneiah, Obed-edom, and Jeiel led the song on lyres set to “sheminith.” 22Chenaniah was the chief of the Levites in the singing; he directed the singing, for he was skillful.i 23Berechiah and Elkanah were gatekeepers before the ark. 24The priests, Shebaniah, Joshaphat, Nethanel, Amasai, Zechariah, Benaiah, and Eliezer, sounded the trumpets before the ark of God.j Obed-edom and Jeiel were also gatekeepers before the ark.

The Ark Comes to Jerusalem. 25k Thus David, the elders of Israel, and the commanders of thousands went to bring up the ark of the covenant of the LORD with joy from the house of Obed-edom. 26While God helped the Levites to carry the ark of the covenant of the LORD, they sacrificed seven bulls and seven rams.l 27David was vested in a robe of fine linen, as were all the Levites who carried the ark, the singers, and Chenaniah, the leader of song; David was also wearing a linen ephod.m 28Thus all Israel brought up the ark of the covenant of the LORD with joyful shouting, to the sound of horns, trumpets, and cymbals, and the music of harps and lyres. 29But as the ark of the covenant of the LORD was entering the City of David, Michal, daughter of Saul, looked down from her window, and when she saw King David leaping and dancing, she despised him in her heart.n

* [15:2021] Alamoth…sheminith: musical terms of uncertain meaning. Alamoth, lit., “young women,” occurs in the superscription to Ps 46. The term sheminith, in v. 21, might mean “bass” or “octave”; cf. Ps 6:1; 12:1.

a. [15:2] Nm 1:50; 7:9; Dt 10:8; 31:25; 1 Sm 6:15; Jos 3:8.

b. [15:3] 1 Chr 13:5; 2 Sm 6:15, 17.

c. [15:11] 1 Chr 16:39; 2 Sm 8:17; 15:29, 35.

d. [15:12] 2 Chr 29:5, 15, 34; 30:3, 15, 24.

e. [15:13] 1 Chr 13:3.

f. [15:15] Ex 25:1022; Nm 1:50; 7:9; 2 Chr 35:3.

g. [15:16] 1 Chr 13:8; 16:5; 2 Chr 5:12; 29:25; Neh 12:27.

h. [15:17] 1 Chr 6:3147; 25:18.

i. [15:22] 1 Chr 26:29.

j. [15:24] Nm 10:8; Jos 6:48.

k. [15:2529] 2 Sm 6:1216.

l. [15:26] 2 Sm 6:17; 2 Chr 29:21.

m. [15:27] 1 Sm 2:18; 2 Sm 6:14.

n. [15:29] 2 Sm 6:2023.

CHAPTER 16

1a They brought in the ark of God and set it within the tent which David had pitched for it.b Then they sacrificed burnt offerings and communion offerings to God. 2When David had finished sacrificing the burnt offerings and communion offerings, he blessed the people in the name of the LORD, 3and distributed to every Israelite, to every man and every woman, a loaf of bread, a piece of meat, and a raisin cake.

David’s Directives for the Levites. 4He then appointed certain Levites to minister before the ark of the LORD, to celebrate, thank, and praise the LORD, the God of Israel.c 5Asaph was their chief, and second to him were Zechariah, Uzziel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Mattithiah, Eliab, Benaiah, Obed-edom, and Jeiel. These were to play on harps and lyres, while Asaph was to sound the cymbals, 6and the priests Benaiah and Jahaziel were to be the regular trumpeters before the ark of the covenant of God.

7On that same day, David appointed Asaph and his brothers to sing for the first time these praises of the LORD:

8* Give thanks to the LORD, invoke his name;d

make known among the peoples his deeds.

9Sing praise, play music;

proclaim all his wondrous deeds.

10Glory in his holy name;

rejoice, O hearts that seek the LORD!

11Rely on the mighty LORD;

constantly seek his face.

12Recall the wondrous deeds he has done,

his signs, and his words of judgment,

13You sons of Israel, his servants,

offspring of Jacob, the chosen ones!

14The LORD is our God;

who rules the whole earth.

15He remembers forever his covenant

the pact imposed for a thousand generations—

16Which was made with Abraham,

confirmed by oath to Isaac,

17And ratified as binding for Jacob,

an everlasting covenant for Israel:

18“To you will I give the land of Canaan,

your own allotted heritage.”

19When they were few in number,

a handful, and strangers there,

20Wandering from nation to nation,

from one kingdom to another,

21He let no one oppress them;

for their sake he rebuked kings:

22“Do not touch my anointed,

to my prophets do no harm.”

23e Sing to the LORD, all the earth,

announce his salvation, day after day.

24Tell his glory among the nations;

among all peoples, his wondrous deeds.

25For great is the LORD and highly to be praised;

to be feared above all gods.

26For the gods of the nations all do nothing,

but the LORD made the heavens.

27Splendor and majesty go before him;

power and rejoicing are in his holy place.

28Give to the LORD, you families of nations,

give to the LORD glory and might;

29Give to the LORD the glory due his name!

Bring gifts, and come before him;

bow down to the LORD, splendid in holiness.

30Tremble before him, all the earth;

the world will surely stand fast, never to be moved.

31Let the heavens be glad and the earth rejoice;

let them say among the nations: The LORD is king.

32Let the sea and what fills it resound;

let the plains be joyful and all that is in them!

33Then let all the trees of the forest exult

before the LORD, who comes,

who comes to rule the earth.

34f Give thanks to the LORD, who is good,

whose love endures forever;

35And say, “Save us, O God, our savior,

gather us and deliver us from among the nations,

That we may give thanks to your holy name

and glory in praising you.”

36Blessed be the LORD, the God of Israel,

from everlasting to everlasting!

Let all the people say, Amen! Hallelujah.

37Then David left Asaph and his brothers there before the ark of the covenant of the LORD to minister before the ark regularly according to the daily ritual; 38he also left there Obed-edom and sixty-eight of his brothers, including Obed-edom, son of Jeduthun, and Hosah, to be gatekeepers.g

39But the priest Zadok and his priestly brothers he left before the tabernacle of the LORD on the high place at Gibeon,h 40to make burnt offerings to the LORD on the altar for burnt offerings regularly, morning and evening, and to do all that is written in the law of the LORD which he commanded Israel.i 41With them were Heman and Jeduthun and the others who were chosen and designated by name to give thanks to the LORD, “whose love endures forever,”j 42with trumpets and cymbals for accompaniment, and instruments for sacred song. The sons of Jeduthun kept the gate.k

43Then all the people departed, each to their own homes, and David returned to bless his household.l

* [16:836] A hymn composed of parts of several psalms: vv. 822 = Ps 105:115; vv. 2333 = Ps 96:113; vv. 3436 = Ps 106:1, 4748. There are minor textual variants between this hymn and the psalms it is drawn from.

a. [16:13] 2 Sm 6:1719.

b. [16:1] 1 Chr 15:1.

c. [16:4] Sir 47:9.

d. [16:822] Ps 105:115.

e. [16:2333] Ps 96:113.

f. [16:3436] Ps 106:1, 4748.

g. [16:38] 1 Chr 15:24.

h. [16:39] 1 Kgs 3:4.

i. [16:40] Ex 29:3842; Lv 6:9; Nm 28:3, 6; 2 Chr 13:11.

j. [16:41] 2 Chr 5:12; 7:3, 6; 20:21; Ezr 3:11.

k. [16:42] 2 Chr 29:27.

l. [16:43] 2 Sm 6:1920.

CHAPTER 17

The Oracle of Nathan. 1a After David had taken up residence in his house, he said to Nathan the prophet, “See, I am living in a house of cedar, but the ark of the covenant of the LORD is under tentcloth.”b 2Nathan replied to David, “Whatever is in your heart, go and do, for God is with you.”

3But that same night the word of God came to Nathan: 4Go and tell David my servant, Thus says the LORD: It is not you who are to build the house for me to dwell in.c 5For I have never dwelt in a house, from the day I brought Israel up, even to this day, but I have been lodging in tent or tabernacle. 6As long as I have wandered about with all Israel, did I ever say a word to any of the judges of Israel whom I commanded to shepherd my people, Why have you not built me a house of cedar? 7Now then, speak thus to my servant David, Thus says the LORD of hosts: I took you from the pasture, from following the flock, to become ruler over my people Israel.d 8I was with you wherever you went, and I cut down all your enemies before you. I will make your name like that of the greatest on the earth. 9I will assign a place for my people Israel and I will plant them in it to dwell there; they will never again be disturbed, nor shall the wicked ever again oppress them, as they did at the beginning, 10and during all the time when I appointed judges over my people Israel. And I will subdue all your enemies. Moreover, I declare to you that the LORD will build you a house: 11when your days have been completed and you must join your ancestors, I will raise up your offspring after you who will be one of your own sons, and I will establish his kingdom.e 12He it is who shall build me a house, and I will establish his throne forever.f 13I will be a father to him, and he shall be a son to me, and I will not withdraw my favor from him as I withdrew it from the one who was before you;g 14but I will maintain him in my house and in my kingdom forever, and his throne shall be firmly established forever.

15In accordance with all these words and this whole vision Nathan spoke to David.

David’s Thanksgiving. 16Then King David came in and sat in the LORD’s presence, and said: “Who am I, LORD God, and what is my house, that you should have brought me so far? 17And yet, even this is too little in your sight, O God! For you have made a promise regarding your servant’s house reaching into the future, and you have looked on me as henceforth the most notable of men, LORD God.h 18What more can David say to you? You have known* your servant. 19LORD, for your servant’s sake and in keeping with your purpose, you have done this great thing. 20LORD, there is no one like you, no God but you, just as we have always heard.i

21“Is there, like your people Israel, whom you redeemed from Egypt, another nation on earth whom a god went to redeem as his people? You won for yourself a name for great and awesome deeds by driving out the nations before your people.j 22You made your people Israel your own forever, and you, LORD, became their God. 23Now, LORD, may the promise that you have spoken concerning your servant and his house remain firm forever. Bring about what you have promised, 24that your name, LORD of hosts, God of Israel, may be great and abide forever, while the house of your servant is established in your presence.

25“Because you, my God, have revealed to your servant that you will build him a house, your servant dares to pray before you.k 26Since you, LORD, are truly God and have made this generous promise to your servant, 27do, then, bless the house of your servant, that it may be in your presence forever—since it is you, LORD, who blessed it, it is blessed forever.”l

* [17:18] Known: given David recognition, chosen him, singled him out; cf. Gn 18:19; Ex 33:12; Am 3:2.

a. [17:127] 2 Sm 7:129.

b. [17:1] 1 Chr 15:1; 2 Sm 5:11.

c. [17:4] 1 Chr 28:3; 1 Kgs 8:19.

d. [17:7] 1 Sm 16:11.

e. [17:11] 2 Sm 7:1213.

f. [17:12] 1 Chr 22:10; 28:6, 10.

g. [17:13] 2 Sm 7:14.

h. [17:17] 2 Sm 7:19.

i. [17:20] Sir 36:4.

j. [17:21] Dt 4:7; 2 Sm 7:23.

k. [17:25] 2 Sm 7:27.

l. [17:27] Nm 22:6.

CHAPTER 18

David’s Victories. 1a After this, David defeated the Philistines and subdued them; and he took Gath and its towns away from the Philistines. 2He also defeated Moab, and the Moabites became David’s subjects, paying tribute.

3David then defeated Hadadezer, king of Zobah, toward Hamath, who was on his way to set up his victory stele at the river Euphrates. 4David captured from him one thousand chariots, seven thousand horsemen, and twenty thousand foot soldiers. David hamstrung all the chariot horses, but left one hundred for his chariots.b 5The Arameans of Damascus came to help Hadadezer, king of Zobah, but David also defeated twenty-two thousand of their men in Aram. 6Then David set up garrisons in the Damascus region of Aram, and the Arameans became David’s subjects, paying tribute. Thus the LORD made David victorious in all his campaigns.

7David took the golden shields that were carried by Hadadezer’s attendants and brought them to Jerusalem. 8David likewise took away from Tibhath and Cun, cities of Hadadezer, large quantities of bronze; Solomon later used it to make the bronze sea and the pillars and the vessels of bronze.c

9When Tou, king of Hamath, heard that David had defeated the entire army of Hadadezer, king of Zobah, 10he sent his son Hadoram to wish King David well and to congratulate him on having waged a victorious war against Hadadezer; for Hadadezer had been at war with Tou. He also brought gold, silver and bronze articles of every sort.d 11These also King David consecrated to the LORD along with all the silver and gold that he had taken from the nations: from Edom, Moab, the Ammonites, the Philistines, and Amalek.

12Abishai, the son of Zeruiah, also defeated eighteen thousand Edomites in the Valley of Salt.e 13He set up garrisons in Edom, and all the Edomites became David’s subjects. Thus the LORD brought David victory in all his undertakings.

David’s Officials. 14f David was king over all Israel; he dispensed justice and right to all his people. 15Joab, son of Zeruiah, was in command of the army; Jehoshaphat, son of Ahilud, was chancellor;g 16Zadok, son of Ahitub, and Ahimelech, son of Abiathar, were priests;* Shavsha was scribe;h 17Benaiah, son of Jehoiada, was in command of the Cherethites and the Pelethites; and David’s sons were the chief assistants to the king.* i

* [18:16] Zadok…and Ahimelech, son of Abiathar, were priests: emendation—the Masoretic text here reads “Abimelech,” not “Ahimelech”; but 2 Sm 8:17, the Chronicler’s source, has “Ahimelech.” See note there.

* [18:17] Chief assistants to the king: according to 2 Sm 8:18, the Chronicler’s source here, David’s sons were priests. The Chronicler’s modification reflects his conviction that only Aaron’s descendants could be priests.

a. [18:113] 2 Sm 8:114.

b. [18:4] 2 Sm 8:14; Jos 11:6, 9.

c. [18:8] 2 Sm 8:8; 1 Kgs 7:15, 23, 27.

d. [18:10] 2 Sm 8:10.

e. [18:12] 2 Sm 8:13; 2 Kgs 14:7.

f. [18:1417] 2 Sm 8:1518.

g. [18:15] 1 Chr 11:6; 2 Sm 8:16; 1 Kgs 4:3.

h. [18:16] 1 Chr 24:3, 6, 31; 2 Sm 8:17.

i. [18:17] 1 Chr 11:22; 2 Sm 8:18; 1 Kgs 1:38, 44.

CHAPTER 19

Campaigns Against Ammon. 1a Afterward Nahash, king of the Ammonites, died and his son succeeded him as king. 2David said, “I will show kindness to Hanun, the son of Nahash, for his father showed kindness to me.” Therefore he sent envoys to console him over his father. But when David’s servants had entered the land of the Ammonites to console Hanun, 3the Ammonite princes said to Hanun, “Do you think David is doing this—sending you these consolers—to honor your father? Have not his servants rather come to you to explore the land, spying it out for its overthrow?” 4So Hanun seized David’s servants and had them shaved and their garments cut off halfway at the hips. Then he sent them away. 5David was told about the men, and he sent word for them to be intercepted, for the men had been greatly disgraced. “Remain at Jericho,” the king told them, “until your beards have grown again; then come back here.”

6When the Ammonites realized that they had put themselves in bad odor with David, Hanun and the Ammonites sent a thousand talents of silver to hire chariots and horsemen from Aram Naharaim, from Aram-maacah, and from Zobah. 7They hired thirty-two thousand chariots along with the king of Maacah and his army, who came and encamped before Medeba. The Ammonites also assembled from their cities and came out for war.

8When David heard of this, he sent Joab and his whole army of warriors against them. 9The Ammonites marched out and lined up for battle at the entrance of the city, while the kings who had come to their help remained apart in the open field. 10When Joab saw that there was a battle line both in front of and behind him, he chose some of the best fighters among the Israelites and lined them up against the Arameans; 11the rest of the army, which he placed under the command of his brother Abishai, then lined up to oppose the Ammonites. 12And he said: “If the Arameans prove too strong for me, you must come and save me; and if the Ammonites prove too strong for you, I will save you. 13Hold firm and let us show ourselves courageous for the sake of our people and the cities of our God; and may the LORD do what is good in his sight.” 14Joab therefore advanced with his men to engage the Arameans in battle; but they fled before him. 15And when the Ammonites saw that the Arameans had fled, they too fled before his brother Abishai, and entered their city. Joab then came to Jerusalem.

16Seeing themselves vanquished by Israel, the Arameans sent messengers to bring out the Arameans from beyond the Euphrates, with Shophach, the commander of Hadadezer’s army, at their head. 17When this was reported to David, he gathered all Israel together, crossed the Jordan, and met them. With the army of David drawn up to fight the Arameans, they gave battle. 18But the Arameans fled before Israel, and David killed seven thousand of their chariot fighters and forty thousand of their foot soldiers; he also put to death Shophach, the commander of the army. 19When the vassals of Hadadezer saw themselves vanquished by Israel, they made peace with David and became his subjects. After this, the Arameans refused to come to the aid of the Ammonites.

a. [19:119] 2 Sm 10:119.

CHAPTER 20

1At the turn of the year,* the time when kings go to war, Joab led the army out in force, laid waste the land of the Ammonites, and went on to besiege Rabbah; David himself remained in Jerusalem. When Joab had attacked Rabbah and destroyed it, 2David took the crown of Milcom from the idol’s head. It was found to weigh a talent of gold, with precious stones on it; this crown David wore on his own head. He also brought out a great amount of spoil from the city. 3He deported the people of the city and set them to work with saws, iron picks, and axes. David dealt thus with all the cities of the Ammonites. Then David and his whole army returned to Jerusalem.a

Victories over the Philistines. 4b Afterward there was another battle with the Philistines, at Gezer. At that time, Sibbecai the Hushathite struck down Sippai, one of the descendants of the Rephaim, and the Philistines were subdued.c

5There was another battle with the Philistines, and Elhanan, the son of Jair, slew Lahmi, the brother of Goliath* of Gath, whose spear shaft was like a weaver’s beam.d

6There was another battle, at Gath, and there was a giant, who had six fingers to each hand and six toes to each foot; twenty-four in all. He too was descended from the Rephaim. 7He defied Israel, and Jonathan, the son of Shimea, David’s brother, slew him. 8These were the descendants of the Rephaim of Gath who died at the hands of David and his servants.

* [20:1] At the turn of the year: thus in 2 Sm 11 begins the story of David’s adultery with Bathsheba and his murder of her husband Uriah, but the Chronicler omits it.

* [20:5] Elhanan…slew Lahmi, the brother of Goliath: with this notice the Chronicler solves the difficulty of the apparent contradiction between 1 Sm 17:49, 51 (David killed Goliath) and 2 Sm 21:19 (Elhanan killed Goliath).

a. [20:23] 2 Sm 12:3031.

b. [20:48] 2 Sm 21:1822.

c. [20:4] 1 Chr 11:29; 27:11.

d. [20:5] 1 Chr 11:26; 1 Sm 17:4, 23.

CHAPTER 21

David’s Census; the Plague. 1a A satan* rose up against Israel, and he incited David to take a census of Israel.b 2David therefore said to Joab and to the other generals of the army, “Go, number the Israelites from Beer-sheba to Dan, and report back to me that I may know their number.” 3But Joab replied: “May the LORD increase his people a hundredfold! My lord king, are not all of them my lord’s subjects? Why does my lord seek to do this thing? Why should he bring guilt upon Israel?” 4However, the king’s command prevailed over Joab, who departed and traversed all of Israel, and then returned to Jerusalem. 5Joab reported the census figures to David: of men capable of wielding a sword, there were in all Israel one million one hundred thousand, and in Judah four hundred and seventy thousand. 6Levi and Benjamin, however, he did not include in the census, for the king’s command was repugnant to Joab.c 7This command was evil in the sight of God, and he struck Israel. 8Then David said to God, “I have sinned greatly in doing this thing. Take away your servant’s guilt, for I have acted very foolishly.”

9Then the LORD spoke to Gad, David’s seer, in these words:d 10Go, tell David: Thus says the LORD: I am laying out three options; choose one of them, and I will inflict it on you. 11Accordingly, Gad went to David and said to him: “Thus says the LORD: Decide now— 12will it be three years of famine; or three months of fleeing your enemies, with the sword of your foes ever at your back; or three days of the LORD’s own sword, a plague in the land, with the LORD’s destroying angel in every part of Israel? Now consider: What answer am I to give him who sent me?” 13Then David said to Gad: “I am in serious trouble. But let me fall into the hand of the LORD, whose mercy is very great, rather than into hands of men.”

14Therefore the LORD sent a plague upon Israel, and seventy thousand Israelites died. 15God also sent an angel to Jerusalem to destroy it; but as the angel was on the point of destroying it, the LORD saw and changed his mind about the calamity, and said to the destroying angel, “Enough now! Stay your hand!”e

Ornan’s Threshing Floor. The angel of the LORD was then standing by the threshing floor of Ornan the Jebusite. 16When David raised his eyes, he saw the angel of the LORD standing between earth and heaven, drawn sword in hand stretched out against Jerusalem.f David and the elders, clothed in sackcloth, fell face down, 17and David prayed to God: “Was it not I who ordered the census of the people? I am the one who sinned, I did this wicked thing. But these sheep, what have they done? O LORD, my God, strike me and my father’s family, but do not afflict your people with this plague!”

18Then the angel of the LORD commanded Gad to tell David to go up and set up an altar to the LORD on the threshing floor of Ornan the Jebusite.g 19David went up at the word of Gad, which he spoke in the name of the LORD. 20Ornan turned around and saw the king; his four sons who were with him hid themselves, but Ornan kept on threshing wheat. 21But as David came toward Ornan, he looked up and saw that it was David, and left the threshing floor and bowed down before David, his face to the ground. 22David said to Ornan: “Sell me the site of this threshing floor, that I may build on it an altar to the LORD. Sell it to me at its full price, that the plague may be withdrawn from the people.” 23But Ornan said to David: “Take it as your own, and let my lord the king do what is good in his sight. See, I also give you the oxen for the burnt offerings, the threshing sledges for the wood, and the wheat for the grain offering. I give it all to you.” 24But King David replied to Ornan: “No! I will buy it from you properly, at its full price. I will not take what is yours for the LORD, nor bring burnt offerings that cost me nothing.” 25So David paid Ornan six hundred shekels of gold* for the place.

Altar for Burnt Offerings. 26David then built an altar there to the LORD, and sacrificed burnt offerings and communion offerings. He called upon the LORD, who answered him by sending down fire from heaven upon the altar for burnt offerings.h 27Then the LORD gave orders to the angel to return his sword to its sheath.

28Once David saw that the LORD had answered him at the threshing floor of Ornan the Jebusite, he continued to offer sacrifices there. 29The tabernacle of the LORD, which Moses had made in the wilderness, and the altar for burnt offerings were at that time on the high place at Gibeon.i 30But David could not go into his presence to inquire of God, for he was fearful of the sword of the angel of the LORD.

* [21:1] A satan: in the parallel passage (2 Sm 24:1) David is led astray because of the Lord’s anger. The Chronicler’s modification reflects the changed theological outlook of postexilic Israel, when evil was no longer attributed directly to God. At an earlier period the Hebrew word satan (“adversary,” or, especially in a court of law, “accuser”) designated both human beings (1 Kgs 11:14) and a “son of God” who accused people before God (Jb 1:612; 2:17; Zec 3:12). In later Judaism (cf. Wis 2:24) and in the New Testament, satan, or the “devil” (from diablos, the Greek translation of the Hebrew word), designates an evil spirit who tempts people to do wrong.

* [21:25] Six hundred shekels of gold: according to 2 Sm 24:24, David paid only fifty shekels of silver for Ornan’s threshing floor; the Chronicler’s higher figure reflects the value the site of the future Temple had in his eyes.

a. [21:127] 2 Sm 24:125.

b. [21:1] Zec 3:12.

c. [21:6] 1 Chr 27:24; Nm 1:49.

d. [21:9] 1 Chr 29:29; 1 Sm 9:9; 2 Chr 29:25.

e. [21:15] Gn 6:6; Ex 32:14; 2 Sm 24:16; Jon 3:10.

f. [21:16] Jos 5:13.

g. [21:18] 2 Chr 3:1.

h. [21:26] Lv 9:24; Jgs 6:21; 1 Kgs 18:38; 2 Chr 7:1; 2 Mc 2:1012.

i. [21:29] 1 Chr 16:39; 1 Kgs 8:4; 2 Chr 1:3.

CHAPTER 22

1Thus David said, “This is the house of the LORD God, and this is the altar for burnt offerings for Israel.”a 2* David then ordered that the resident aliens in the land of Israel should be brought together, and he appointed them stonecutters to hew out stone blocks for building the house of God.b 3David also laid up large stores of iron to make nails for the doors of the gates, and clamps, together with so much bronze that it could not be weighed,c 4and cedar trees without number. The Sidonians and Tyrians brought great stores of cedar logs to David.d 5David said: “My son Solomon is young and inexperienced; but the house that is to be built for the LORD must be made so magnificent that it will be renowned and glorious in all lands. Therefore I will make preparations for it.” Thus before his death David laid up materials in abundance.e

Charge to Solomon. 6Then he summoned his son Solomon and commanded him to build a house for the LORD, the God of Israel. 7f David said to Solomon: “My son, it was my purpose to build a house myself for the name of the LORD, my God. 8But this word of the LORD came to me: You have shed much blood, and you have waged great wars. You may not build a house for my name, because you have shed too much blood upon the earth in my sight. 9However, a son will be born to you. He will be a peaceful man, and I will give him rest from all his enemies on every side. For Solomon shall be his name, and in his time I will bestow peace* and tranquility on Israel.g 10It is he who shall build a house for my name; he shall be a son to me, and I will be a father to him,h and I will establish the throne of his kingship over Israel forever.

11“Now, my son, the LORD be with you, and may you succeed in building the house of the LORD your God, as he has said you shall. 12But may the LORD give you prudence and discernment when he gives you command over Israel, so that you keep the law of the LORD, your God. 13Only then shall you succeed, if you are careful to observe the statutes and ordinances which the LORD commanded Moses for Israel. Be strong and steadfast; do not fear or be dismayed.i 14See, with great effort I have laid up for the house of the LORD a hundred thousand talents of gold,* a million talents of silver, and bronze and iron in such great quantities that they cannot be weighed. I have also laid up wood and stones, to which you must add.j 15Moreover, you have available workers, stonecutters, masons, carpenters, and experts in every craft, 16without number, skilled with gold, silver, bronze, and iron. Set to work, therefore, and the LORD be with you!”

Charge to the Officials. 17David also commanded all of the officials of Israel to help his son Solomon: 18“Is not the LORD your God with you? Has he not given you rest on every side? Indeed, he has delivered the inhabitants of the land into my power, and the land is subdued before the LORD and his people.k 19Therefore, devote your hearts and souls to seeking the LORD your God. Proceed to build the sanctuary of the LORD God, that the ark of the covenant of the LORD and God’s sacred vessels may be brought into the house built for the name of the LORD.”l

* [22:24] According to 1 Kgs 5:1532, Solomon himself made the material preparations for building the Temple, even though David had wished to do so (1 Kgs 5:1719). The Chronicler, however, seeks to enhance David’s role in the building of the Temple.

* [22:9] The Hebrew word for peace, shalom, is reflected in the name Solomon, in Hebrew, Shelomo. The Chronicler draws a contrast here between Solomon, the “peaceful man,” and David, who “waged great wars” (v. 8). David was prevented from building the Temple, not only because his time was taken up in waging war (1 Kgs 5:17), but also because he shed much blood (1 Chr 22:8), thereby making himself, in the Chronicler’s view, ritually unfit for the task.

* [22:14] A hundred thousand talents of gold: about 3,775 tons of gold. A million talents of silver: about 37,750 tons of silver. These highly exaggerated figures are intended to stress the inestimable value of the Temple as the center of Israelite worship. More modest figures are given in 1 Kgs 9:14, 28; 10:10, 14.

a. [22:1] 1 Chr 21:18, 26, 28; 2 Chr 3:1.

b. [22:2] 1 Kgs 5:3132; 9:2021; 2 Chr 2:1617.

c. [22:3] 1 Chr 18:8; 1 Kgs 7:47.

d. [22:4] Ezr 3:7; 2 Chr 2:9.

e. [22:5] 1 Chr 29:1.

f. [22:710] 1 Chr 17:114; 28:27; 2 Sm 7:116; 1 Kgs 5:1719; 8:1721.

g. [22:9] 2 Sm 12:24.

h. [22:10] Heb 1:5.

i. [22:13] 1 Chr 28:7, 20; Dt 31:6, 23; Jos 1:67, 9; 1 Kgs 2:23.

j. [22:14] 1 Chr 29:25.

k. [22:18] 1 Chr 23:25; Jos 21:44; 23:1; 2 Sm 7:1.

l. [22:19] 1 Kgs 8:6, 21; 2 Chr 5:7; 6:11.

CHAPTER 23

The Levitical Divisions. 1When David had grown old and was near the end of his days, he made his son Solomon king over Israel.a 2He then gathered together all the officials of Israel, along with the priests and the Levites.

3The Levites thirty years old and above were counted, and their total number was found to be thirty-eight thousand.b 4Of these, twenty-four thousand were to direct the service of the house of the LORD, six thousand were to be officials and judges, 5four thousand were to be gatekeepers,c and four thousand were to praise the LORD with the instruments which [David] had devised for praise. 6David apportioned them into divisions according to the sons of Levi: Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.d

7To the Gershonites belonged Ladan and Shimei. 8The sons of Ladan: Jehiel the chief, then Zetham and Joel; three in all.e 9The sons of Shimei were Shelomoth, Haziel, and Haran; three. These were the heads of the families of Ladan. 10The sons of Shimei were Jahath, Zizah, Jeush, and Beriah; these were the sons of Shimei, four in all. 11Jahath was the chief and Zizah was second to him; but Jeush and Beriah had few sons, and therefore they were classed as a single family, exercising a single office.

12The sons of Kohath: Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel; four in all.f 13The sons of Amram were Aaron and Moses. Aaron was set apart to be consecrated as most holy, he and his sons forever, to offer sacrifice before the LORD, to minister to him, and to bless in his name forever.g 14As for Moses, however, the man of God, his sons were counted as part of the tribe of Levi. 15The sons of Moses were Gershom and Eliezer.h 16The sons of Gershom: Shubael the chief.i 17The sons of Eliezer were Rehabiah the chief—Eliezer had no other sons, but the sons of Rehabiah were very numerous. 18The sons of Izhar: Shelomith the chief. 19The sons of Hebron: Jeriah, the chief, Amariah, the second, Jahaziel, the third, and Jekameam, the fourth.j 20The sons of Uzziel: Micah, the chief, and Isshiah, the second.k

21The sons of Merari: Mahli and Mushi. The sons of Mahli: Eleazar and Kish.l 22Eleazar died leaving no sons, only daughters; the sons of Kish, their kinsmen, married them.m 23The sons of Mushi: Mahli, Eder, and Jeremoth; three in all.n

24These were the sons of Levi according to their ancestral houses, the family heads as they were enrolled one by one according to their names. They performed the work of the service of the house of the LORD beginning at twenty years of age.o

25David said: “The LORD, the God of Israel, has given rest to his people, and has taken up his dwelling in Jerusalem forever.p 26Henceforth the Levites need not carry the tabernacle or any of the equipment for its service.”q 27For by David’s last words the Levites were enlisted from the time they were twenty years old. 28Their duty is to assist the sons of Aaron in the service of the house of the LORD, having charge of the courts, the chambers, and the preservation of everything holy: they take part in the service of the house of God. 29They also have charge of the showbread, of the fine flour for the grain offering, of the wafers of unleavened bread, and of the baking and mixing, and of all measures of quantity and size.r 30They are to be present every morning to offer thanks and to praise the LORD, and likewise in the evening;s 31and at every sacrifice of burnt offerings to the LORD on sabbaths, new moons, and feast days, in such numbers as are prescribed, they must always be present before the LORDt 32and observe what is prescribed for them concerning the tent of meeting, the sanctuary, and the sons of Aaron, their kinsmen, in the service of the house of the LORD.u

a. [23:1] 1 Chr 28:5; 1 Kgs 1:30.

b. [23:3] Nm 4:3, 23, 30, 35, 39, 43, 47; 8:2326; 2 Chr 31:17.

c. [23:5] 1 Chr 9:22.

d. [23:6] 1 Chr 6:1, 1630; 26:119; Ex 6:16; Nm 3:17; 26:57.

e. [23:8] 1 Chr 26:2122; 29:8.

f. [23:12] 1 Chr 26:23; Ex 6:18; Nm 3:19; 26:5861.

g. [23:13] 1 Chr 6:49; Ex 6:20; 28:1; Nm 6:23.

h. [23:15] Ex 2:22; 18:34.

i. [23:16] 1 Chr 26:24.

j. [23:19] 1 Chr 24:23.

k. [23:20] 1 Chr 24:2425.

l. [23:21] 1 Chr 6:29; 24:26, 2829; Ex 6:19; Nm 3:20, 33.

m. [23:22] 1 Chr 24:2829.

n. [23:23] 1 Chr 6:47; 24:30.

o. [23:24] 2 Chr 31:17; Ezr 3:8.

p. [23:25] 1 Chr 22:18; Ps 132:13.

q. [23:26] 1 Chr 15:15; 2 Chr 35:3.

r. [23:29] 1 Chr 9:29, 3132; Lv 2:1, 45; 24:58.

s. [23:30] Nm 28:38.

t. [23:31] Nm 28:229:39.

u. [23:32] Nm 3:69; 18:25.

CHAPTER 24

The Priestly Divisions. 1There were also divisions for the sons of Aaron. The sons of Aaron were Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar.a 2Nadab and Abihu died before their father, leaving no sons; therefore only Eleazar and Ithamar served as priests.b 3David, with Zadok, a descendant of Eleazar, and Ahimelech, a descendant of Ithamar, apportioned them their offices in the priestly service.c 4But since the sons of Eleazar were found to be more numerous by male heads than those of Ithamar, the former were divided into sixteen groups, and the latter into eight groups, each under its family heads. 5Their functions were assigned impartially by lot, for there were officers of the holy place, and officers of God, descended both from Eleazar and from Ithamar. 6The scribe Shemaiah, son of Nethanel, a Levite, recorded them in the presence of the king, and of the officials, of Zadok the priest, and of Ahimelech, son of Abiathar,* and of the heads of the ancestral houses of the priests and of the Levites, listing two successive family groups from Eleazar before each one from Ithamar.d

7e The first lot fell to Jehoiarib, the second to Jedaiah, 8the third to Harim, the fourth to Seorim, 9the fifth to Malchijah, the sixth to Mijamin, 10the seventh to Hakkoz, the eighth to Abijah,f 11the ninth to Jeshua, the tenth to Shecaniah, 12the eleventh to Eliashib, the twelfth to Jakim, 13the thirteenth to Huppah, the fourteenth to Ishbaal, 14the fifteenth to Bilgah, the sixteenth to Immer, 15the seventeenth to Hezir, the eighteenth to Happizzez, 16the nineteenth to Pethahiah, the twentieth to Jehezkel, 17the twenty-first to Jachin, the twenty-second to Gamul, 18the twenty-third to Delaiah, the twenty-fourth to Maaziah. 19This was the appointed order of their service when they functioned in the house of the LORD according to the precepts given them by Aaron, their father, as the LORD, the God of Israel, had commanded him.g

Other Levites. 20h Of the remaining Levites, there were Shubael, of the sons of Amram, and Jehdeiah, of the sons of Shubael; 21Isshiah, the chief, of the sons of Rehabiah; 22Shelomith of the Izharites, and Jahath of the sons of Shelomith. 23The sons of Hebron were Jeriah, the chief, Amariah, the second, Jahaziel, the third, Jekameam, the fourth. 24The sons of Uzziel were Micah; Shamir, of the sons of Micah; 25Isshiah, the brother of Micah; and Zechariah, a descendant of Isshiah. 26The sons of Merari were Mahli, Mushi, and the sons of his son Uzziah. 27The sons of Merari through his son Uzziah: Shoham, Zaccur, and Ibri. 28The sons of Mahli were Eleazar, who had no sons, 29and Jerahmeel, of the sons of Kish. 30The sons of Mushi were Mahli, Eder, and Jerimoth.

These were the sons of the Levites according to their ancestral houses. 31They too, in the same manner as their kinsmen, the sons of Aaron, cast lots in the presence of King David, Zadok, Ahimelech, and the heads of the priestly and levitical families; the more important family did so in the same way as the less important one.i

* [24:6] Ahimelech, son of Abiathar: see note on 18:16.

a. [24:1] Ex 6:23; Nm 3:24; 26:60.

b. [24:2] Lv 10:17, 12; Nm 3:2, 4.

c. [24:3] 1 Chr 18:16; 2 Sm 8:17; 2 Chr 8:14.

d. [24:6] 1 Chr 18:16; 2 Sm 8:17.

e. [24:710] 1 Chr 9:1013; Ezr 2:3638; Neh 7:3942; 11:1014.

f. [24:10] Lk 1:5.

g. [24:19] 2 Chr 23:8.

h. [24:2031] 1 Chr 23:723.

i. [24:31] 1 Chr 25:8; 26:13.

CHAPTER 25

The Singers. 1David and the leaders of the liturgy set apart for the service the sons of Asaph, Heman, and Jeduthun, who prophesied* to the accompaniment of lyres and harps and cymbals.a

This is the list of those who performed this service: 2Of the sons of Asaph: Zaccur, Joseph, Nethaniah, and Asharelah, sons of Asaph, under the direction of Asaph, who prophesied under the guidance of the king. 3Of Jeduthun, these sons of Jeduthun: Gedaliah, Zeri, Jeshaiah, Shimei, Hashabiah, and Mattithiah; six, under the direction of their father Jeduthun, who prophesied to the accompaniment of a lyre, to give thanks and praise to the LORD. 4Of Heman, these sons of Heman: Bukkiah, Mattaniah, Uzziel, Shubael, and Jerimoth; Hananiah, Hanani, Eliathah, Giddalti, Romamti-ezer, Joshbekashah, Mallothi, Hothir, and Mahazioth. 5All these were the sons of Heman, the king’s seer for divine matters; to exalt him God gave Heman fourteen sons and three daughters.b 6All these, whether of Asaph, Jeduthun, or Heman, were under their fathers’ direction in the singing in the house of the LORD to the accompaniment of cymbals, harps and lyres, serving in the house of God, under the guidance of the king.c 7Their number, together with that of their kinsmen who were trained in singing to the LORD, all of them skilled men, was two hundred and eighty-eight. 8They cast lots for their functions equally, young and old, master and pupil alike.d

9The first lot fell to Asaph, to the family of Joseph; he and his sons and his kinsmen were twelve. Gedaliah was the second; he and his kinsmen and his sons were twelve. 10The third was Zaccur, his sons, and his kinsmen: twelve. 11The fourth fell to Izri, his sons, and his kinsmen: twelve. 12The fifth was Nethaniah, his sons, and his kinsmen: twelve. 13The sixth was Bukkiah, his sons, and his kinsmen: twelve. 14The seventh was Jesarelah, his sons, and his kinsmen: twelve. 15The eighth was Jeshaiah, his sons, and his kinsmen: twelve. 16The ninth was Mattaniah, his sons, and his kinsmen: twelve. 17The tenth was Shimei, his sons, and his kinsmen: twelve. 18The eleventh was Uzziel, his sons, and his kinsmen: twelve. 19The twelfth fell to Hashabiah, his sons, and his kinsmen: twelve. 20The thirteenth was Shubael, his sons, and his kinsmen: twelve. 21The fourteenth was Mattithiah, his sons, and his kinsmen: twelve. 22The fifteenth fell to Jeremoth, his sons, and his kinsmen: twelve. 23The sixteenth fell to Hananiah, his sons, and his kinsmen: twelve. 24The seventeenth fell to Joshbekashah, his sons, and his kinsmen: twelve. 25The eighteenth fell to Hanani, his sons, and his kinsmen: twelve. 26The nineteenth fell to Mallothi, his sons, and his kinsmen: twelve. 27The twentieth fell to Eliathah, his sons, and his kinsmen: twelve. 28The twenty-first fell to Hothir, his sons, and his kinsmen: twelve. 29The twenty-second fell to Giddalti, his sons, and his kinsmen: twelve. 30The twenty-third fell to Mahazioth, his sons, and his kinsmen: twelve. 31The twenty-fourth fell to Romamti-ezer, his sons, and his kinsmen: twelve.

* [25:1] This list of twenty-four classes of Temple singers balances the list of the twenty-four classes of priests (24:419). The last nine names in v. 4, which seem to form a special group, were perhaps originally fragments or incipits (the opening words) of hymns. With some slight changes in the vocalization, these names would mean: “Have mercy on me, O LORD,” “Have mercy on me,” “You are my God,” “I magnify,” “I extol the help of…,” “Sitting in adversity,” “I have fulfilled,” “He made abundant,” and “Visions.”

a. [25:1] 1 Chr 6:1632; 15:1617, 19; 16:37; 2 Chr 5:12; 35:15; Neh 12:27, 45.

b. [25:5] 2 Chr 35:15.

c. [25:6] 1 Chr 15:16.

d. [25:8] 1 Chr 24:31.

CHAPTER 26

Divisions of Gatekeepers. 1a As for the divisions of gatekeepers: Of the Korahites was Meshelemiah, the son of Kore, one of the sons of Abiasaph. 2Meshelemiah’s sons: Zechariah, the firstborn, Jediael, the second son, Zebadiah, the third, Jathniel, the fourth, 3Elam, the fifth, Jehohanan, the sixth, Eliehoenai, the seventh. 4Obed-edom’s sons: Shemaiah, the firstborn, Jehozabad, a second son, Joah, the third, Sachar, the fourth, Nethanel, the fifth, 5Ammiel, the sixth, Issachar, the seventh, Peullethai, the eighth, for God blessed him. 6To his son Shemaiah were born sons who ruled over their family, for they were warriors. 7The sons of Shemaiah were Othni, Rephael, Obed, and Elzabad; also his kinsmen who were men of substance, Elihu and Semachiah. 8All these were the sons of Obed-edom, who, together with their sons and their kinsmen, were men of substance, fit for the service. Of Obed-edom, sixty-two. 9Of Meshelemiah, eighteen sons and kinsmen, men of substance.

10Hosah, a descendant of Merari, had these sons: Shimri, the chief (for though he was not the firstborn, his father made him chief),b 11Hilkiah, the second son, Tebaliah, the third, Zechariah, the fourth. All the sons and kinsmen of Hosah were thirteen.

12To these divisions of the gatekeepers, by their chief men, were assigned watches for them to minister in the house of the LORD, for each group in the same way. 13They cast lots for each gate, small and large families alike. 14When the lot was cast for the east side, it fell to Meshelemiah. Then they cast lots for his son Zechariah, a prudent counselor, and the north side fell to his lot.c 15To Obed-edom fell the south side, and to his sons the storehouse. 16To Hosah fell the west side with the Shallecheth gate at the ascending highway. For each family, watches were established. 17On the east, six watched each day, on the north, four each day, on the south, four each day, and at the storehouse they were two and two; 18as for the large building* on the west, there were four at the highway and two at the large building. 19These were the classes of the gatekeepers, sons of Korah and Merari.

Treasurers. 20Their brother Levites had oversight of the treasuries of the house of God and the treasuries of votive offerings.d 21Among the sons of Ladan the Gershonite, the family heads were sons of Jehiel:e 22f the sons of Jehiel, Zetham and his brother Joel, who oversaw the treasures of the house of the LORD. 23Of the Amramites, Izharites, Hebronites, and Uzzielites, 24Shubael, son of Gershom, son of Moses, was principal overseer of the treasures. 25g His associate was of the line of Eliezer, whose son was Rehabiah, whose son was Jeshaiah, whose son was Joram, whose son was Zichri, whose son was Shelomith. 26This Shelomith and his kinsmen oversaw all the treasures of the votive offerings dedicated by King David, the heads of the families, the commanders of thousands and of hundreds, and the commanders of the army;h 27what came from wars and from spoils, they dedicated for the support of the house of the LORD. 28Also, whatever Samuel the seer, Saul, son of Kish, Abner, son of Ner, Joab, son of Zeruiah, and all others had consecrated, was under the charge of Shelomith and his kinsmen.

Magistrates. 29Among the Izharites, Chenaniah and his sons were in charge of Israel’s civil affairs* as officials and judges.i 30Among the Hebronites, Hashabiahj and his kinsmen, one thousand seven hundred men of substance, had the administration of Israel on the western side of the Jordan for all the work of the LORD and the service of the king. 31Among the Hebronites, Jerijah was their chief according to their family records. In the fortieth year of David’s reign search was made, and there were found among them warriors at Jazer of Gilead.k 32His kinsmen were also men of substance, two thousand seven hundred heads of families. King David appointed them to the administration of the Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasseh for everything pertaining to God and to the king.

* [26:18] The large building: parbar, mentioned also in 2 Kgs 23:11; the meaning of the word is unclear.

* [26:29] Civil affairs: lit., “external work,” i.e., conduct of affairs external to the Temple.

a. [26:1] 1 Chr 9:19; 2 Chr 8:14; 23:19; 35:15; Neh 12:45.

b. [26:10] 1 Chr 16:38.

c. [26:14] 1 Chr 9:21.

d. [26:20] 1 Chr 28:12; 1 Kgs 7:51.

e. [26:21] 1 Chr 23:78; 29:8.

f. [26:2224] 1 Chr 23:8, 12, 16.

g. [26:25] 1 Chr 23:1718; 24:21.

h. [26:26] 2 Sm 8:11.

i. [26:29] 1 Chr 23:4.

j. [26:30] 1 Chr 27:17; Neh 11:1516.

k. [26:31] 1 Chr 23:19; 29:27; Jos 13:25.

CHAPTER 27

Army Commanders.* 1This is the list of the Israelite family heads, commanders of thousands and of hundreds, and other officers who served the king in all that pertained to the divisions, of twenty-four thousand men each, that came and went month by month throughout the year.

2Over the first division for the first month was Ishbaal, son of Zabdiel, and in his division were twenty-four thousand men; 3a descendant of Perez, he was chief over all the commanders of the army for the first month. 4Over the division of the second month was Eleazar, son of Dodo, from Ahoh, and in his division were twenty-four thousand men.a 5b The third army commander, for the third month, was Benaiah, son of Jehoiada the chief priest, and in his division were twenty-four thousand men. 6This Benaiah was a warrior among the Thirty and over the Thirty. His son Ammizabad was over his division. 7Fourth, for the fourth month, was Asahel, brother of Joab, and after him his son Zebadiah, and in his division were twenty-four thousand men.c 8Fifth, for the fifth month, was the commander Shamhuth, a descendant of Zerah, and in his division were twenty-four thousand men. 9Sixth, for the sixth month, was Ira, son of Ikkesh, from Tekoa, and in his division were twenty-four thousand men. 10Seventh, for the seventh month, was Hellez, from Beth-pelet, of the Ephraimites, and in his division were twenty-four thousand men. 11Eighth, for the eighth month, was Sibbecai the Hushathite, a descendant of Zerah, and in his division were twenty-four thousand men.d 12Ninth, for the ninth month, was Abiezer from Anathoth, of Benjamin, and in his division were twenty-four thousand men. 13Tenth, for the tenth month, was Maharai from Netophah, a descendant of Zerah, and in his division were twenty-four thousand men. 14Eleventh, for the eleventh month, was Benaiah the Pirathonite, of the Ephraimites, and in his division were twenty-four thousand men. 15Twelfth, for the twelfth month, was Heldai the Netophathite, of the family of Othniel, and in his division were twenty-four thousand men.

Tribal Leaders. 16Over the tribes of Israel, for the Reubenites the leader was Eliezer, son of Zichri; for the Simeonites, Shephatiah, son of Maacah; 17for Levi, Hashabiah, son of Kemuel; for Aaron, Zadok; 18for Judah, Eliab,e one of David’s brothers; for Issachar, Omri, son of Michael; 19for Zebulun, Ishmaiah, son of Obadiah; for Naphtali, Jeremoth, son of Azriel; 20for the Ephraimites, Hoshea, son of Azaziah; for the half-tribe of Manasseh, Joel, son of Pedaiah; 21for the half-tribe of Manasseh in Gilead, Iddo, son of Zechariah; for Benjamin, Jaasiel, son of Abner; 22for Dan, Azarel, son of Jeroham. These were the commanders of the tribes of Israel.

23David did not count those who were twenty years of age or younger, for the LORD had promised to multiply Israel like the stars of the heavens.f 24Joab, son of Zeruiah, began to take the census, but he did not complete it, for because of it wrath fell upon Israel. Therefore the number was not recorded in the book of chronicles of King David.g

Overseers. 25Over the treasuries of the king was Azmaveth,h the son of Adiel. Over the treasuries in the country, the cities, the villages, and the towers was Jonathan, son of Uzziah. 26Over the farm workers who tilled the soil was Ezri, son of Chelub. 27Over the vineyards was Shimei from Ramah, and over their produce for the wine cellars was Zabdi the Shiphmite. 28Over the olive trees and sycamores of the Shephelah was Baalhanan the Gederite, and over the stores of oil was Joash. 29Over the cattle that grazed in Sharon was Shitrai the Sharonite, and over the cattle in the valleys was Shaphat, the son of Adlai; 30over the camels was Obil the Ishmaelite; over the donkeys was Jehdeiah the Meronothite; 31and over the flocks was Jaziz the Hagrite. All these were the overseers of King David’s possessions.

David’s Court. 32Jonathan, David’s uncle and a man of intelligence, was counselor and scribe; he and Jehiel, the son of Hachmoni, attended the king’s sons. 33Ahithophel was also the king’s counselor, and Hushai the Archite was the king’s friend.i 34After Ahithophel* came Jehoiada, the son of Benaiah, and Abiathar. The commander of the king’s army was Joab.

* [27:115] This list of army commanders is similar to, but distinct from, the list of David’s warriors given in 11:1047. The schematic enumeration of the soldiers presented here appears artificial and exaggerated (12 x 24,000 = 288,000 men!). However, the Hebrew word (’eleph) translated “thousand” might also designate a military unit of much smaller size.

* [27:34] After Ahithophel: after Ahithophel’s suicide (2 Sm 17:23), Jehoiada succeeded him as the king’s counselor. Abiathar: David’s priest, along with Zadok. See note on 18:16.

a. [27:4] 1 Chr 11:12; 2 Sm 23:9.

b. [27:56] 1 Chr 11:2225; 18:17; 2 Sm 23:2023.

c. [27:7] 2 Sm 2:18; 23:24.

d. [27:11] 1 Chr 11:29; 20:4; 2 Sm 21:18.

e. [27:18] 1 Chr 2:13.

f. [27:23] Gn 22:17.

g. [27:24] 2 Sm 24:10.

h. [27:25] 2 Sm 23:31.

i. [27:33] 2 Sm 15:12, 3237; 16:1619, 23; 17:516, 23.

CHAPTER 28

The Assembly at Jerusalem. 1David assembled at Jerusalem all the commanders of Israel, the tribal commanders, the commanders of the divisions who were in the service of the king, the commanders of thousands and of hundreds, those in command of all the king’s estates and possessions, and his sons, together with the courtiers, the warriors, and every person of substance.a 2b King David rose to his feet and said: “Hear me, my kinsmen and my people. It was my purpose to build a house of repose myself for the ark of the covenant of the LORD, the footstool for the feet of our God;* and I was preparing to build it. 3But God said to me, You may not build a house for my name, for you are a man who waged wars and shed blood. 4However, the LORD, the God of Israel, chose me from all my father’s family to be king over Israel forever. For he chose Judah as leader, then one family of Judah, that of my father; and finally, among all the sons of my father, it pleased him to make me king over all Israel.c 5And of all my sons—for the LORD has given me many sons—he has chosen my son Solomon to sit on the throne of the LORD’s kingship over Israel.d 6For he said to me: It is your son Solomon who shall build my house and my courts, for I have chosen him for my son, and I will be a father to him.e 7I will establish his kingdom forever, if he perseveres in carrying out my commandments and ordinances as he does now. 8Therefore, in the sight of all Israel, the assembly of the LORD, and in the hearing of our God: keep and carry out all the commandments of the LORD, your God, that you may continue to possess this good land and afterward leave it as an inheritance to your children forever.f

9“As for you, Solomon, my son, know the God of your father and serve him with a whole heart and a willing soul, for the LORD searches all hearts and understands all the mind’s thoughts. If you search for him, he will be found; but if you abandon him, he will cast you off forever.g 10See, then! The LORD has chosen you to build a house as his sanctuary. Be strong and set to work.”

Temple Plans Given to Solomon. 11Then David gave to his son Solomon the design of the portico and of the house itself, with its storerooms, its upper rooms and inner chambers, and the shrine containing the cover of the ark.h 12He provided also the design for all else that he had in mind by way of courts for the house of the LORD, with the surrounding compartments for the treasuries of the house of God and the treasuries for the votive offerings, 13as well as for the divisions of the priests and Levites, for all the work of the service of the house of the LORD, and for all the liturgical vessels of the house of the LORD. 14He specified the weight of gold to be used in the golden vessels for the various services and the weight of silver to be used in the silver vessels for the various services; 15likewise for the golden menorahs and their lamps he specified the weight of gold for each menorah and its lamps, and for the silver menorahs he specified the weight of silver for each menorah and its lamps, depending on the use to which each menorah was to be put.i 16He specified the weight of gold for each table that was to hold the showbread, and the silver for the silver tables; 17the pure gold for the forks, basins, and pitchers; the weight of gold for each golden bowl and the weight of silver for each silver bowl; 18the refined gold, and its weight, to be used for the altar of incense; and, finally, gold to fashion the chariot:* the cherubim spreading their wings and covering the ark of the covenant of the LORD.j 19All this he wrote down, by the hand of the LORD, to make him understand it—the working out of the whole design.

20Then David said to his son Solomon: “Be strong and steadfast, and go to work; do not fear or be dismayed, for the LORD God, my God, is with you. He will not fail you or abandon you before you have completed all the work for the service of the house of the LORD.k 21The divisions of the priests and Levites are ready for all the service of the house of God; they will be with you in all the work with all those who are eager to show their skill in every kind of craftsmanship. Also the commanders and all the people will do everything that you command.”l

* [28:2] The ark…the footstool…of our God: the Lord, who was invisibly enthroned upon the cherubim associated with the ark of the covenant at Shiloh and later in the Jerusalem Temple, had the ark as his footstool; cf. Ps 99:5; 132:7. There was no ark in the postexilic Temple. Cf. note on 2 Chr 5:9.

* [28:18] Chariot: this reference is probably inspired by the vision account in Ez 1:424; 10:122.

a. [28:1] 1 Chr 27:222, 2531; 11:1047.

b. [28:23] 1 Chr 17:4; 22:710; 2 Sm 7:5; 1 Kgs 5:3; Ps 132:37.

c. [28:4] 1 Chr 17:23; Gn 49:812; 1 Sm 16:613.

d. [28:5] 1 Chr 3:19; 14:37; 22:9; 23:1; Wis 9:7.

e. [28:6] 1 Chr 17:1114; 22:910; 2 Sm 7:1213.

f. [28:8] Dt 4:5.

g. [28:9] 1 Chr 29:17; 2 Chr 15:2; 1 Kgs 8:61.

h. [28:11] Ex 25:9, 40; 26:30.

i. [28:15] Ex 25:3137.

j. [28:18] Ex 25:1822; 30:110; 1 Kgs 6:2328.

k. [28:20] 1 Chr 22:13; Jos 1:5.

l. [28:21] Ex 36:15.

CHAPTER 29

Offerings for the Temple. 1King David then said to the whole assembly: “My son Solomon, whom alone God has chosen, is still young and inexperienced; the work, however, is great, for this palace is not meant for human beings, but for the LORD God.a 2For this reason I have stored up for the house of my God, as far as I was able, gold for what will be made of gold, silver for what will be made of silver, bronze for what will be made of bronze, iron for what will be made of iron, wood for what will be made of wood, onyx stones and settings for them, carnelian and mosaic stones, every other kind of precious stone, and great quantities of marble.b 3But now, because of the delight I take in the house of my God, in addition to all that I stored up for the holy house, I give to the house of my God my personal fortune in gold and silver: 4three thousand talents of Ophir gold, and seven thousand talents of refined silver, for overlaying the walls of the rooms,c 5for the various utensils to be made of gold and silver, and for every work that is to be done by artisans. Now, who else will contribute generously and consecrate themselves this day to the LORD?”d

6Then the heads of the families, the tribal commanders of Israel, the commanders of thousands and of hundreds, and those who had command of the king’s affairs came forward willinglye 7and contributed for the service of the house of God five thousand talents and ten thousand darics of gold, ten thousand talents of silver, eighteen thousand talents of bronze, and one hundred thousand talents of iron.f 8Those who had precious stones gave them into the keeping of Jehiel the Gershonite for the treasury of the house of the LORD.g 9The people rejoiced over these free-will offerings, for they had been contributed to the LORD wholeheartedly. King David also rejoiced greatly.h

David’s Prayer. 10Then David blessed the LORD in the sight of the whole assembly. David said:

“Blessed are you, LORD,

God of Israel our father,

from eternity to eternity.

11Yours, LORD, are greatness and might,

majesty, victory, and splendor.

For all in heaven and on earth is yours;

yours, LORD, is kingship;

you are exalted as head over all.

12Riches and glory are from you,

and you have dominion over all.

In your hand are power and might;

it is yours to give greatness and strength to all.i

13Therefore, our God, we give you thanks

and we praise the majesty of your name.

14“But who am I, and who are my people, that we should have the means to contribute so freely? For everything is from you, and what we give is what we have from you. 15For before you we are strangers and travelers, like all our ancestors. Our days on earth are like a shadow, without a future.j 16LORD our God, all this wealth that we have brought together to build you a house for your holy name comes from you and is entirely yours. 17I know, my God, that you put hearts to the test and that you take pleasure in integrity. With a whole heart I have willingly given all these things, and now with joy I have seen your people here present also giving to you generously. 18LORD, God of our ancestors Abraham, Isaac, and Israel,k keep such thoughts in the hearts and minds of your people forever, and direct their hearts toward you. 19Give to my son Solomon a wholehearted desire to keep your commandments, precepts, and statutes, that he may carry out all these plans and build the palace for which I have made preparation.”

20Then David told the whole assembly, “Now bless the LORD your God!” And the whole assembly blessed the LORD, the God of their ancestors, bowing down in homage before the LORD and before the king. 21On the following day they brought sacrifices and burnt offerings to the LORD, a thousand bulls, a thousand rams, and a thousand lambs, together with their libations and many other sacrifices for all Israel; 22and on that day they ate and drank in the LORD’s presence with great rejoicing.

Solomon Anointed. Then for a second time* they proclaimed David’s son Solomon king, and they anointed him for the LORD as ruler, and Zadok as priest. 23Thereafter Solomon sat on the throne of the LORD as king succeeding his father David; he prospered, and all Israel obeyed him.l 24All the commanders and warriors, and also all the other sons of King David, swore allegiance to King Solomon. 25And the LORD exalted Solomon greatly in the eyes of all Israel, giving him a glorious reign such as had not been enjoyed by any king over Israel before him.m

David’s Death. 26Thus David, the son of Jesse, had reigned over all Israel. 27He was king over Israel for forty years: he was king seven years in Hebron and thirty-three years in Jerusalem.n 28He died at a ripe old age, rich in years and wealth and glory, and his son Solomon succeeded him as king.o

29Now the deeds of King David, first and last, are recorded in the history of Samuel the seer, the history of Nathan the prophet, and the history of Gad the seer,p 30together with the particulars of his reign and valor, and of the events that affected him and all Israel and all the kingdoms of the earth.

* [29:22] For a second time: the first time is in 23:1 where David appoints Solomon his successor. Now there is a solemn public ratification of that appointment.

a. [29:1] 1 Chr 22:5; 28:5.

b. [29:2] 1 Chr 22:14.

c. [29:4] 2 Chr 9:10; 1 Kgs 9:28; 10:11.

d. [29:5] Ex 25:2; 35:56.

e. [29:6] 1 Chr 27:1, 2531; 28:1.

f. [29:7] Ezr 2:69; 8:27; Neh 7:7071.

g. [29:8] 1 Chr 23:8; 26:21.

h. [29:9] 2 Kgs 12:4.

i. [29:12] 2 Chr 20:6; Wis 6:3.

j. [29:15] Lv 25:23; Wis 2:5; 5:9.

k. [29:18] Ex 3:6, 15; 4:5; 1 Kgs 18:36.

l. [29:23] 1 Chr 28:5; 2 Chr 9:8; 1 Kgs 2:12.

m. [29:25] 2 Chr 1:12; 1 Kgs 3:13.

n. [29:27] 2 Sm 5:5; 1 Kgs 2:11.

o. [29:28] 1 Chr 23:1.

p. [29:29] 1 Chr 21:9; 1 Sm 22:5.